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Elon Musk is Planning to Develop an Alternate Smartphone

If Apple decides to remove Twitter from the App Store, Elon Musk has an easy strategy,  to build his own smartphone.  Musk has changed a lot...

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New Windows Server Updates Cause Domain Controller Freezes, Restarts


Microsoft is looking into LSASS memory leaks (caused by Windows Server updates released during the November Patch Tuesday) that may result in domain controller freezes and restarts. LSASS (Local Security Authority Subsystem Service) is in charge of enforcing security policies on Windows systems and managing access tokens, password changes, and user logins. 

If this service fails, logged-in users lose access to their Windows accounts on the machine and are presented with a system restart error followed by a system reboot. 

"LSASS might use more memory over time and the DC might become unresponsive and restart," Microsoft explains on the Windows Health dashboard.

"Depending on the workload of your DCs and the amount of time since the last restart of the server, LSASS might continually increase memory usage with the uptime of your server and the server might become unresponsive or automatically restart."

Out-of-band Windows updates pushed out to address authentication issues on Windows domain controllers may also be affected by this known issue, according to Redmond. Windows Server 2019, Windows Server 2016, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Server 2012, Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1, and Windows Server 2008 SP2 are all affected. Microsoft is working on a solution and promises an update in an upcoming release.

Workaround  Available:

Until a fix for this LSASS memory leak issue is available, the company offers a workaround for IT administrators to work around domain controller instability. This workaround requires admins to set the KrbtgtFullPacSignature registry key (used to gate CVE-2022-37967 Kerberos protocol changes) to 0 using the following command: reg add "HKLM\System\CurrentControlSet\services\KDC" -v "KrbtgtFullPacSignature" -d 0 -t REG_DWORD

"Once this known issue is resolved, you should set KrbtgtFullPacSignature to a higher setting depending on what your environment will allow," Microsoft added.

"It is recommended to enable Enforcement mode as soon as your environment is ready. For more information on this registry key, please see KB5020805: How to manage Kerberos protocol changes related to CVE-2022-37967."

Redmond addressed another known issue that caused Windows Server domain controller reboots due to LSASS crashes in March. Microsoft fixed domain controller sign-in failures and other authentication issues caused by November Patch Tuesday Windows updates earlier this month with emergency out-of-band (OOB) updates.

APTs: Description, Key Threats, and Best Management Practices

An Advances Persistent Threat (APT) is a sophisticated, multiple staged cyberattack, in which the threat actor covertly creates and maintain its presence within an organization’s network, undetected, over a period of time. 

A government agency or a business could be the target, and the information could be stolen or used to do additional harm. When attempting to penetrate a high-value target, an APT may be launched against the systems of one entity. APTs have been reported to be carried out by both state actors and private criminals. 

Several organizations closely monitor the threat actor groups that pose these APTs. CrowdStrike, a security company that monitors over 170 APT groups, claims to have witnessed a nearly 45% rise in interactive infiltration efforts between year 2020 and 2021. Nation-state espionage activities are now a strong second in frequency, although (financial) e-crime is still the most frequently identified motive.

An APT comprises of mainly three main reasons: 

  1. Network infiltration 
  2. The expansion of the attacker’s presence 
  3. The extraction of amassed data (or, in some instances, the launch of sabotage within the system)

Since the threat is established to both evade detection and acquire sensitive information, each of these steps may entail several steps and be patiently carried out over an extended period of time.

Successful breaches may operate covertly for years; yet, some acts, including jumping from a third-party provider to the ultimate target or carrying out a financial exfiltration, may be carried out very rapidly. 

APTs have a reputation for using deception to avoid giving proper, direct credit for their work. An APT for one country could incorporate language from another country into its code to confuse investigators. 

Investigating teams may as well have close relationships with state-intelligence agencies, leading some to raise questions pertaining to the objectivity of their findings. 

Amidst this, the tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs) of APTs are up for constant updates, in response to the continuously changing environment and countermeasures. “This past year, there was a dramatic uptick in APT attacks on critical infrastructure such as the transportation and financial sectors,” says Trellix’s Head of Threat Intelligence. 

List of key threats

New APTs based on advanced techniques are, by nature, generally operating yet being undetected. Additionally, quite challenging attacks continue to be carried out against organizations, long after they were first detected (for instance, SolarWinds). 

Moreover, fresh common trends and patterns are constantly being identified and duplicated, unless a means is discovered in order to render them ineffective. Listed below are some of the major trends in APTs, identified by a Russian internet security firm ‘Kaspersky’: 

The private sector supporting an influx of new APT players: It is anticipated that more and more APTs will use commercially available products like the Pegasus software from the Israeli company NSO Group, which is marketed to government agencies for its zero-click surveillance capabilities. 

Mobile devices exposed to wide, sophisticated attacks: Although Apple's new Lockdown Mode for the iOS 16 iPhone software update is meant to address the exploitation of spyware by NSO Group, its phones still stand with Android and other mobile devices as the top targets of APTs. 

More supply-chain attacks: Supply-chain attacks should continue to be a particularly effective strategy for reaching high-value government and private targets, as demonstrated by SolarWinds. 

Continued exploitation of work-from-home (WFH): With the emerging WFH arrangements since the year 2020, hacker groups will continue targeting employees’ remote systems, until those systems are potent enough to combat exploitation. 

Increase in APT intrusions in the Middle East, Turkey, and Africa (META) region, (especially in Africa): With the constantly diminishing geopolitical situation, globally, espionage is emerging rapidly in areas where systems and communications are the most vulnerable. 

APT Identification and Management Practices: 

Since APTs are designed to be covert, facilitated, backed by constant advancement, and illicit traffic in zero-day exploits, it becomes intrinsically challenging to detect them. Attacks, however, frequently follow a pattern, going for predictable targets like admin credentials and privileged data repositories that represent important company assets. 

Following are 5 recommendations for avoiding and identifying APT intrusion: 

1. Threat modeling and instrumentation: According to Igor Volovich, Vice President of Compliance for Omulos “Threat modeling is a useful practice that helps defenders understand their risk posture from an attacker’s perspective, informing architecture and design decisions around security controls […] Instrumenting the environment with effective controls capable of detecting malicious activity based on intent rather than specific technique is a strategic direction that enterprises should pursue.” 

2. Stay alert: Pay closer attention to the operation of security analyst and security community posting, which keeps a check on the APT groups, since they look for activities pertaining to indications of threat group actions, or that of an activity group and threat actors; as well as activities that indicate a potential intrusion or cyber-campaigns. 

3. Baseline: It is crucial to understand your own environment and establish a common baseline in order to identify anomalous behavior in the environment and, consequently, spot the tell-tale signs of the presence of APTs. It is easier to identify odd traffic patterns and unusual behavior by using this baseline. 

4. Use your tools: In order to identify APTs, one may as well use existing security tools like endpoint protection, network prevention systems, firewalls, and email protection. 

5. Threat Intelligence: Threat intelligence sources should be evaluated against data from security tools and information on potentially unusual traffic. Organizations that use threat feeds can describe the threat and what it can signify for the target organisation. These technologies can help a management team identify potential attackers and determine their possible objectives.  

Fixing Insecure Operational Technology That Threatens the Global Economy


Considering the widespread technology leading to cyberattacks, the demand for work to safeguard the systems and networks also increases. Many techniques have been developed for protecting bits and bytes of computer networks, yet no such method has been discovered for strengthening the physical framework which handles the world’s economy. 

In many countries, operational technology (OT) platforms have largely polluted traditional physical infrastructures as they have been able to computerize their entire physical infrastructure, whether it is buildings, bridges, trains, and cars, or the industrial equipment and assembly lines that work hard to generate an economy's wealth. Even after so many updates in the tech world, if there is any cyberattack with new technology on things like planes or beds, it will be completely whimsy. There is a definite requirement to take proper care and actions to avoid destructive damage caused due to such attacks.  

Consider, for instance, a scenario in which our country's northeast regions are left without heat in the middle of a brutal cold snap. This is the result of an attack on an energy plant. If such an attack was carried out, imagine the enormous amount of hardship that would be caused and even death - as homes would turn dark, businesses would lose customers, hospitals would have trouble operating, and airports would be shut down. 

The first idea was that this kind of cyber threat could be a prime target for physical infrastructure when the Stuxnet virus emerged over a decade ago. At least 14 industrial sites, including a uranium enrichment plant in Iran, were infected by a malicious threat known as Stuxnet, which inserted malware into the software. 

Built-in vulnerabilities 

Operational technology manufacturers have always had a problem in which they did not design their products with security in mind when they developed them. Thus, trillions of dollars worth of OT assets are incredibly vulnerable today, which has led to tremendous financial losses. Almost all the products in this category are designed to use microcontrollers that communicate over controller area networks (CANs), which are insecure. 

As well as for passenger vehicles and agricultural equipment, the CAN protocol is used in an extensive range of other products, such as medical instruments and building automation systems. However, it does not include mechanisms for supporting secure communications. Additionally, it lacks authentication and authorization. When a CAN frame is sent, it does not involve any information about the sender's address hence the recipient's address cannot be determined from the CAN frame. 

Thus, there has been a considerable increase in the vulnerability of CAN bus networks to malicious attacks, as a consequence, especially with the expansion of the cyberattack landscape. We, therefore, need to come up with more advanced approaches and solutions to better secure CAN buses and protect vital infrastructures to better secure them. 

As we examine what can happen if a CAN bus network is compromised, let us first examine what might happen if we consider what this security should look like. Several microprocessors are interconnected by a CAN bus. They act as a communication channel that is shared by all of them. The CAN bus makes it possible for several systems within an automobile. For example, to communicate seamlessly over a common channel. The CAN bus allows the engine system, combustion system, braking system, and lighting system to operate seamlessly in communicating.

However, hackers can still send random messages in compliance with the protocol and interfere with CAN bus communication because it is inherently insecure. Consider the havoc that would ensue if even a small-scale hack of an automated vehicle occurred, transforming these cars into a swarm of potentially lethal objects, causing an unimaginable amount of disaster and mayhem. 

As much as the automotive industry is facing the challenge of designing a well build, embedded security mechanism to protect CAN, the challenge is that it must achieve high fault tolerance while keeping costs low. Ultimately, these startups will be able to defend all our physical assets, including planes, trains, and manufacturing systems from cyberattacks. 

How OT Security Would Work 

How would such a company look if it existed? By intercepting data from the CAN and deconstructing the protocol, this kind of application could enrich and alert anomalous communication traffic traversing the OT data bus. This is ranging the CAN. An operator of high-value physical equipment, having such a solution installed, would be able to gain real-time, actionable insight into anomalies and intrusions within their systems - and hence would be better equipped to thwart any cyberattacks that may occur. 

Usually, this type of company comes from the defense industry, but it can also come from other sectors. As well as having the potential to examine various machine protocols, it will also have a lodged data plane with deep foundational technology. 

A $10 billion-plus opportunity can easily be created with the right team and support. Protecting the physical infrastructure of our country is one of the most imperative obligations that we have. Hence, there is a clear need for new solutions, concentrated on hardening critical assets against cyberattacks, which can provide a practical solution to the problem.

Twitter's Brussels Staff Sacked by Musk 

After a conflict on how the social network's content should be regulated in the Union, Elon Musk shut down Twitter's entire Brussels headquarters.

Twitter's connection with the European Union, which has some of the most robust regulations controlling the digital world and is frequently at the forefront of global regulation in the sector, may be strained by the closing of the company's Brussels center. 

Platforms like Twitter are required by one guideline to remove anything that is prohibited in any of the EU bloc's member states. For instance, tweets influencing elections or content advocating hate speech would need to be removed in jurisdictions where such communication is prohibited. 

Another obligation is that social media sites like Twitter must demonstrate to the European Commission, the executive arm of the EU, that they are making a sufficient effort to stop the spread of content that is not illegal but may be damaging. Disinformation falls under this category. This summer, businesses will need to demonstrate how they are handling such positions. 

Musk will need to abide by the GDPR, a set of ground-breaking EU data protection laws that mandate Twitter have a data protection officer in the EU. 

The present proposal forbids the use of algorithms that have been demonstrated to be biased against individuals, which may have an influence on Twitter's face-cropping tools, which have been presented to favor youthful, slim women.

Twitter might also be obligated to monitor private conversations for grooming or images of child sexual abuse under the EU's Child Sexual Abuse Materials proposal. In the EU, there is still discussion about them.

In order to comply with the DSA, Twitter will need to put in a lot more effort, such as creating a system that allows users to flag illegal content with ease and hiring enough moderators to examine the content in every EU member state.

Twitter won't have to publish a risk analysis until next summer, but it will have to disclose its user count in February, which initiates the commission oversight process.

Two lawsuits that might hold social media corporations accountable for their algorithms that encourage dangerous or unlawful information are scheduled for hearings before the US Supreme Court. This might fundamentally alter how US businesses regulate content.