Search This Blog

Showing posts with label Mobile Security. Show all posts

Facestealer Trojan Identified in More than 200 Apps on Google Play


Cybersecurity researchers at TrendMicro have identified more than 200 applications on Google Play distributing spyware called Facestealer used to steal user credentials and other sensitive data, including private keys. The worrying thing is that the number and popularity of these types of applications are increasing day by day, with some even being installed over a hundred thousand times. 

Some malicious applications that users should uninstall immediately include: Daily Fitness OL, Enjoy Photo Editor, Panorama Camera, Photo Gaming Puzzle, Swarm Photo, Business Meta Manager, and Cryptomining Farm Your Own Coin. 

Facestealer, first identified by Doctor Web in July 2021, steals Facebook information from users via malicious apps on Google Play, then uses it to infiltrate Facebook accounts, serving purposes such as scams, fake posts, and advertising bots. Similar to the Joker malware, Facestealer changes its code frequently and has multiple variations. 

"Similar to Joker, another piece of mobile malware, Facestealer changes its code frequently, thus spawning many variants," Cifer Fang, Ford Quin, and Zhengyu Dong researchers at Trend Micro stated in a new report. "Since its discovery, the spyware has continuously beleaguered Google Play." 

Since being denounced until now, the malicious apps have continuously appeared on Google Play under different guises. For example, Daily Fitness OL is ostensibly a fitness app, but its main goal is to steal Facebook data. Once the application is launched, it will send a request to download the encryption configuration. When the user logs into Facebook, the application opens a WebView browser to load the URL from the downloaded profile. 

Subsequently, a piece of JavaScript code is embedded in the web page to get the login data. After the user is successfully logged into the account, the application collects the cookie, then encrypts all the personally identifiable information (PII) and sends it to the remote server. 

In addition, TrendMicro researchers unearthed 40 fake cryptocurrency miner apps that are variants of similar apps that they discovered in August 2021. The apps trick users into subscribing to paid services or clicking on advertisements. 

To mitigate the risks, users should carefully read reviews from people who have downloaded them before. However, this is also not the optimal solution because many applications will hire highly appreciated services, for example, Photo Gaming Puzzle is rated 4.5 stars, and Enjoy Photo Editor is rated 4.1 stars. Enjoy Photo Editor surpassed 100,000 downloads before Google kicked it out of PlayStore.

Scammers Employ Instagram Stories to Target Users


Instagram is the fourth most popular social media platform in the world, with over one billion monthly active users. Almost everyone, from celebrities to your kids, has an Instagram account. This global success makes it a very lucrative target for threat actors. 

According to BBC, the scamming has worsened over the past year, with the Instagram fraud reports increasing by 50% since the coronavirus outbreak began in 2020. Scammers just need a handful of those people who will help someone without thinking. And since they’re not after money, just a bit of someone’s time, they already have one foot in the door. 

The latest scam involves Instagram backstories. Fraudsters will ask you for help, tell their backstory, and put their fate in your hands. Here are some of the Instagram stories that fraudsters employ to target users: 

  •  "I’m launching my own product line." 
  •  "I’m in a competition and need you to vote for me." 
  • "I’m trying to get verified on Instagram and need people to confirm my fanbase with a link."
  • "I need a help link to get into Instagram on my other phone." This is the most common tactic employed by scammers. 
  • "I’m contesting for an ambassadorship spot at an online influencers program." This one is surprisingly popular, with fake influencers everywhere. 

Scammers try to get access to your Instagram account by sending you a suspicious link, either as an Instagram direct message or via email. They will then ask you not to click the link but merely take a screenshot and send the image back to them. The link is a legitimate Instagram “forgotten password” URL for your account, and fraudsters want you to screenshot it so they can use the URL to reset your password, take over your account, and lock you out. 

Regardless, any requests for link screenshots should be treated with extreme suspicion. Whether product lines or ambassador programs, you can safely ignore these messages. If you think you’ve been scammed, report it to Instagram. Change your password and enable two-factor authentication. If you reuse passwords, a scammer could break into more of your accounts. Change those passwords.

Beware of New Phishing Campaign Targeting Facebook Users


Facebook users need to remain vigilant after researchers at Abnormal Security uncovered the new phishing campaign designed to steal passwords from admin that run company Facebook pages. The scam begins with a victim being sent a phishing email claiming to be from 'The Facebook Team’. 

The email warns that the user's account might be disabled or the page might be removed over repeatedly posting content that infringes on someone else’s rights. 

Once scaring a victim into thinking their Facebook profile could soon be taken down, the victim is invited to appeal the report by clicking on a link that the security researchers said goes to a Facebook post – and within this post, there's another link that directs users to a separate website. To file an ‘appeal’, a Facebook user is told to enter sensitive information including their name, email address, and Facebook password. 

All this information is sent to the threat actor, who can exploit it to log in to the victim's Facebook page, gather sensitive details from their account, and potentially lock them out of it. If the victim re-uses their Facebook email address and password for other websites and applications, the attacker can access those too. One of the reasons phishing attacks like this are successful is because they create a sense of urgency. 

“What makes this attack interesting (and particularly effective) is that the threat actors are leveraging Facebook’s actual infrastructure to execute the attack. Rather than sending the target straight to the phishing site via a link in the email, the attackers first redirect them to a real post on Facebook. Because the threat actors use a valid Facebook URL in the email, it makes the landing page especially convincing and minimizes the chance the target will second-guess the legitimacy of the initial email,” researchers explained. 

“In addition, it appears the attackers are targeting accounts of people who manage Facebook Pages for companies. For these individuals, a disabled Facebook account wouldn’t just be an inconvenience; it could have an impact on their marketing, branding, and revenue. If they believed their account was at risk, they would be particularly motivated to act quickly.” 

If you have already been a victim of this campaign, or want to stay safe from any future threats, Facebook on its website has issued recommendations for its users. The social network advises anyone who thinks they’ve fallen for a phishing scam to report it, change their password, and make sure they log out of any devices they don’t recognize. Facebook also recommends users turn on multi-factor authentication, which helps to add an extra level of security to their account.

Critical Chipset Flaws Enable Remote Spying on Millions of Android Devices


Three security flaws in Qualcomm and MediaTek audio decoders have been discovered, if left unpatched which might permit an adversary to remotely access media and audio chats from compromised mobile devices. According to Israeli cybersecurity firm Check Point, the flaws might be exploited to execute remote code execution (RCE) attacks by delivering a carefully prepared audio file. 

The researchers said in a report shared with The Hacker News, "The impact of an RCE vulnerability can range from malware execution to an attacker gaining control over a user's multimedia data, including streaming from a compromised machine's camera. In addition, an unprivileged Android app could use these vulnerabilities to escalate its privileges and gain access to media data and user conversations." 

The flaws, termed ALHACK, are based on an audio coding system that Apple created and made open-source in 2011. The Apple Lossless Audio Codec (ALAC) or Apple Lossless audio codec format is used to compress digital music in a lossless manner. Since then, other third-party suppliers have used Apple's reference audio codec implementation as the basis for their own audio decoders, including Qualcomm and MediaTek. While Apple has constantly patched and fixed security problems in their proprietary version of ALAC, the open-source version of the codec has not gotten a single update since it was first uploaded to GitHub on October 27, 2011. 

Check Point revealed three vulnerabilities in this ported ALAC code, two of which were found in MediaTek CPUs and one in Qualcomm chipsets. – 
• CVE-2021-0674 (CVSS score: 5.5, MediaTek) - A case of improper input validation in ALAC decoder leading to information disclosure without any user interaction 
• CVE-2021-0675 (CVSS score: 7.8, MediaTek) - A local privilege escalation flaw in the ALAC decoder stemming from out-of-bounds write 
• CVE-2021-30351 (CVSS score: 9.8, Qualcomm) - An out-of-bound memory access due to improper validation of a number of frames being passed during music playback 

The vulnerabilities allowed Check Point to "grab the phone's camera feed" in a proof-of-concept exploit, according to security researcher Slava Makkaveev, who discovered the issues alongside Netanel Ben Simon. All three vulnerabilities were addressed by the individual chipset manufacturers in December 2021, following responsible disclosure. 

"The vulnerabilities were easily exploitable. A threat actor could have sent a song (media file) and when played by a potential victim, it could have injected code in the privileged media service. The threat actor could have seen what the mobile phone user sees on their phone," Makkaveev explained.

Beware of iCloud Phishing Attacks, MetaMask Warns Apple Users


ConsenSys-owned crypto wallet provider MetaMask is warning its community regarding possible phishing attacks via Apple’s iCloud service. In a Twitter thread posted on April 17, the company warned its customers that the encrypted passwords for their accounts, called MetaMask vaults, will be uploaded to Apple’s cloud service if the iCloud backup option is enabled on the app. 

 As a result, a phishing account that exploits a customer’s iCloud account will also compromise their passwords and hence their crypto wallets. This comes after an Apple user, who goes by “revive_dom” claimed on Twitter to have lost crypto assets worth $650,000 from his MetaMask crypto wallet. 

“This is how it happened. Got a phone call from Apple, literally from Apple (on my caller Id) Called it back because I suspected fraud and it was an Apple number. So, I believed them. They asked for a code that was sent to my phone and 2 seconds later my entire MetaMask was wiped,” the user wrote in his thread. 

The phishing campaign involves certain default device settings in iPhones, iPads which see a user’s seed phrase or “password-encrypted MetaMask vault” stored on the iCloud if the user has enabled automatic backups for their application data. Metamask is an online crypto wallet that allows users to store their crypto assets such as Bitcoin, Ethereum, etc, as well as non-fungible-tokens (NFTs).

“If you have enabled iCloud backup for app data, this will include your password-encrypted MetaMask vault. If your password isn’t strong enough, and someone phishes your iCloud credentials, this can mean stolen funds,” the company tweeted. 

Serpent, the founder of a project called DAPE NFT, explained how the fraudsters stole from a victim. On April 15, the victim received multiple text messages asking to reset his Apple ID password along with a supposed call from Apple which was ultimately a spoofed caller ID.

During the call, the fraudsters said there was unusual activity on the victim’s Apple ID and asked for a one-time verification code. This is the six-digit verification code sent out to a user when they want to reset their Apple ID password or even login from a different laptop or iPhone, iPad, etc. After receiving the 2FA code, they were able to take control over the Apple ID, and access iCloud which gave them access to the victim's MetaMask.

 How to shut cloud backups?

Metamask in a warning tweet has requested users to disable iCloud backups by following the steps mentioned below: - 

Go to Settings > Profile > iCloud > Manage Storage > Backups, then turn off the toggle. 

To ensure that iCloud will not “surprise” you with backups you didn’t allow, go to Settings > Apple ID/iCloud > iCloud Backup and turn it off.

Google Strengthens Android Security With a New Set of Dev Policy Updates


Google has announced several important policy changes for Android app developers that will improve the security of users, Google Play, and the apps available through the service. 
These new developer requirements will be in effect from May 11th through November 1st, 2022, allowing developers plenty of time to adjust. The following are the most important policy changes related to cybersecurity and fraud that will be implemented: 
  • New API level target requirements.
  • Banning of loan apps whose Annual Percentage Rate (APR) is 36% or higher.
  • Prohibiting the abuse of the Accessibility API.
  • New policy changes for the permission to install packages from external sources.
All newly released/published apps must target an Android API level released within one year of the most recent major Android version release starting November 1, 2022. Those who do not comply with this criterion will have their apps banned from the Play Store, Android's official app store. 

Existing apps that do not target an API level within two years of the most recent major Android version will be eliminated from the Play Store and become undiscoverable. This change is intended to compel app developers to follow the tougher API regulations that underpin newer Android releases, such as better permission management and revoking, notification anti-hijacking, data privacy enhancements, phishing detection, splash screen limits, and other features. 

According to Google's blog article on the new policy: "users with the latest devices or those who are fully caught up on Android updates expect to realize the full potential of all the privacy and security protections Android has to offer." 

App developers who require extra time to migrate to more recent API levels can request a six-month extension, albeit this is not guaranteed. Many outdated apps will be forced to adopt better secure methods as a result of this policy change. 

Accessibility API abuse

The Accessibility API for Android enables developers to design apps that are accessible to people with disabilities, enabling the creation of new ways to operate the device using its applications. However, malware frequently exploits this capability to do actions on an Android smartphone without the user's permission or knowledge. As noted below, Google's new policies further restrict how this policy can be applied: 
  • Change user settings without their permission or prevent the ability for users to disable or uninstall any app or service unless authorized by a parent or guardian through a parental control app or by authorized administrators through enterprise management software; 
  • Workaround Android built-in privacy controls and notifications; or
  • Change or leverage the user interface deceptively or otherwise violates Google Play Developer Policies.
Google has also released a policy change that tightens the "REQUEST INSTALL PACKAGES" permission. Many malicious software publishers hide package-fetching technology that downloads malicious modules after installation to have their submission accepted on the Play Store. Users interpret these activities as "request to update" or "download new content," and they either authorise the action when presented with the corresponding prompt or don't notice because it occurs in the background. 

Google aims to narrow this loophole by imposing new permission requirements, bringing light to an area that was previously unregulated. Apps that use this permission must now only fetch digitally signed packages, and self-updates, code modifications, or bundling of APKs in the asset file will still require the user's authorization. For all apps using API level 25 (Android 7.1) or higher, the new REQUEST INSTALL PACKAGES policies will enter into force on July 11th, 2022.

SharkBot Android Trojan Resurfaces On Google Play Store


Check Point researchers have unearthed multiple malicious Android apps on the Google Play Store posing as an antivirus applications to deploy the SharkBot Android trojan. 

The malicious banking trojan was initially spotted in November last year when it was only being deployed via third-party application stores. The primary motive was on initiating illegal money transfers via Automatic Transfer Systems (ATS) by auto-filling fields in authentic applications. 

Last month, NCC Group reported that multiple SharkBot droppers had infiltrated Google Play, all of which showed similar code and behavior. The first SharkBot dropper discovered in Google Play masqueraded as antivirus solutions. It was identified as a downgraded version of the trojan containing only minimum features, but capable of fetching and installing the full version at a later date. 

Apparently, on March 9th, Google removed four apps in question, and a few days after that, another SharkBot dropper was identified. The app was reported right away, so no installations for this one. The same happened on March 22 and 27. Those new droppers got removed from Google Play due to quick discovery. 

According to Check Point researchers, they identified a total of seven droppers in Google Play, published from developer accounts that were active in late 2021, and which had some of their applications removed from the store. However, these malicious apps have been already installed more than 15,000 times before the takedown from the store. 

Once installed on an Android device, SharkBot exploits Android's Accessibility Services permissions to present fake overlay windows on top of legitimate banking apps. Thus, when victims enter their usernames and passwords in the windows that mimic benign credential input forms, the stolen data is sent to a malicious server. 

“What is interesting and different from the other families is that SharkBot likely uses ATS to also bypass multi-factor authentication mechanisms, including behavioral detection like bio-metrics, while at the same time it also includes more classic features to steal user’s credentials,” NCC Group stated. 

The malicious Android trojan also employs geofencing features and bypassing techniques, which makes it unique from other mobile banking viruses. The particular features include ignoring the users from China. Romania, Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, India. The majority of victims reside in Italy and the United Kingdom.

New Android Spyware Linked to Russia Hacking Group Turla


A new Android spyware application has been spotted and detailed by a team of cybersecurity experts that records audio and tracks location once planted in the device. The spyware employs an identical shared-hosting infrastructure that was previously identified to be employed by a Russia-based hacking group known as Turla. 

However, it remains unclear whether the Russian hacking group has a direct connection with the recently identified spyware. It reaches through a malicious APK file that works as Android spyware and performs actions in the background, without giving any clear references to users. 

Researchers at threat intelligence firm Lab52 have discovered the Android spyware that is named Process Manager. Once installed, the malware removes its gear-shaped icon from the home screen and operates in the background, exploiting its wide permissions to access the device's contacts and call logs, track its location, send and read messages, access external storage, snap pictures, and record audio. 

The spyware collects all the data in JSON format and subsequently transmits it to a server located in Russia. It is not clear whether the app receives permissions by exploiting the Android Accessibility service or by luring users to grant their access. 

According to Lab52 researchers, authors of the Android spyware have exploited the referral system of an app called Roz Dhan: Earn Wallet Cash which is available for download on Google Play and has over 10 million downloads. The spyware attempts to download and install an application using a that eventually helps malicious actors install it on the device and makes a profit out of its referral system.

It seems relatively odd for spyware since the cybercriminals seem to be focused on cyber espionage. According to Bleeping Computer, the strange behavior of downloading an app to earn commissions from its referral system suggests that spyware could be a part of a larger scheme that is yet to be uncovered. 

"The application, [which] is on Google Play and is used to earn money, has a referral system that is abused by the malware," the researchers said. "The attacker installs it on the device and makes a profit." 

To mitigate the risks, Lab52 researchers have recommended Android users avoid installing any unknown or suspicious apps on their devices. Users should also review the app permissions they grant to limit access of third parties to their hardware.

Trojanized Apps are Being Employed to Steal Cryptocurrency From iOS and Android Users


ESET, an antivirus manufacturer and internet security firm has unearthed and backtracked a sophisticated malicious cryptocurrency campaign that targets mobile devices using Android or iOS operating systems (iPhones). 

According to ESET, malware authors are distributing malicious apps via fake websites, mimicking legitimate wallet services such as Metamask, Coinbase, Trust Wallet, TokenPocket, Bitpie, imToken, and OneKey. Subsequently, attackers use ads placed on legitimate websites with misleading articles to promote the fake websites that distribute these malicious wallet apps. 

Additionally, intermediaries have been recruited via Telegram and Facebook groups, in an attempt to trick unsuspecting visitors into downloading the malicious apps. While the primary motive of the campaign is to exfiltrate users' funds, ESET researchers have mainly noticed Chinese users being targeted but with cryptocurrencies becoming more popular, the firm's researchers expect the methodologies used in it to spread to other markets. 

The campaign tracked since May 2021, seems to be controlled by a single criminal group. The malicious cryptocurrency wallet apps are designed in such a manner that they replicate the same functionality of their original counterparts, while also incorporating malicious code changes that enable the theft of crypto assets. 

"These malicious apps also represent another threat to victims, as some of them send secret victim seed phrases to the attackers' server using an unsecured HTTP connection," Lukáš Štefanko, senior malware researcher at ESET stated. "This means that victims' funds could be stolen not only by the operator of this scheme but also by a different attacker eavesdropping on the same network." 

The Slovak cybersecurity firm said it also uncovered dozens of groups promoting malicious apps on the Telegram messaging app that were, in turn, shared on at least 56 Facebook groups in hopes of landing new distribution partners for the fraudulent campaign. 

The investigation also showed that there are 13 unearthed applications that masquerade as the Jxx Liberty Waller on the Google Play store, all of which have since been removed from the Android app marketplace. However, before the takedown in January, these applications were installed more than 1100 times. "Their goal was simply to tease out the user's recovery seed phrase and send it either to the attackers' server or to a secret Telegram chat group," Štefanko concluded.

Scammers are Using Novel Technique to Target iPhone and Android Users


Cybersecurity researchers have unearthed a new methodology employed by fraudsters to target iPhone and Android users by tricking them into installing malware via dubious apps and use it to swipe thousands of dollars.

According to researchers at cybersecurity firm Sophos, a scam campaign dubbed CryptoRom typically begins with social-engineering attack, in which a scammer befriends a victim through dating apps like Tinder, Bumble, or Facebook Dating.

The scammer then moves their conversation to messaging apps such as WhatsApp and asks the victim to install a cryptocurrency trading application that's designed to mimic popular brands and lock people out of their accounts and freeze their funds. In some cases, victims are forced to pay a “tax” to withdraw their money, which they learn by chatting with an in-app customer service representative who is part of the malicious campaign. 

"This style of cyber-fraud, known as sha zhu pan — literally 'pig butchering plate' — is a well-organized, syndicated scam operation that uses a combination of often romance-centered social engineering and fraudulent financial applications and websites to ensnare victims and steal their savings after gaining their confidence," stated Sophos analyst Jagadeesh Chandraiah. 

The malicious campaign exploits iOS TestFlight and Apple WebClip to deploy fake mobile apps and websites onto victims’ phones without being subject to the rigorous app store approval process. The malicious campaign was initially used in Asia but has hit the U.S. and European victims since October 2021. 

TestFlight is used for testing the beta version of apps before they head to the App Store. It is used for small internal tests, sent out to 100 users by email, and public beta tests distributed to up to 10,000 users. But the scammers exploit the TestFlight feature, which provides a way for users to download bogus apps outside of the App Store, researchers explained. 

Sophos researchers said some victims installed malicious versions of the legitimate BTCBOX Japanese crypto exchange app that were made available through the TestFlight feature. 

The fraudsters also employed iOS WebClips to trick iPhone users, as they were sent malicious URLs via the service. WebClips offers fast access to favorite webpages or links, as Apple highlights, with researchers stating that it can be employed to design fake apps to appear more authentic.

Android Trojan Spotted in Multiple Applications on Google Play Harvesting User Credentials


Cybersecurity researchers at Dr. Web monitoring the mobile app ecosystem have spotted a major tip in trojan infiltration on the Google Play Store, with one of the applications having over 500,000 installations and available to download. 

The majority of these applications belong to a family of trojan malware used in a variety of scams, resulting in money losses as well as the theft of sensitive private details. Additionally, a new Android trojan called ‘Android.Spy.4498’ designed as a WhatsApp mod has been discovered in the wild. The trojan is spreading via malicious websites promoted by social media posts, forums, and SEO poisoning.

According to Dr. Web's report published in January 2022, the ‘Android.Spy.4498’ was identified in some of the unofficial WhatsApp applications (mods) named GBWhatsApp, OBWhatsApp, or WhatsApp Plus. These mods provide Arabic language support, home screen widgets, separate bottom bar, hide status options, call blocking, and the ability to auto-save received media. These mods are popular in the online communities because they offer additional features not available in the vanilla WhatsApp.

The Trojan is also capable of downloading apps and offering users to install them in order to display dialog boxes with the content it receives from malicious actors. During the attack, Android.Spy.4498 requests access to manage notifications and read their content. 

Additionally, the threats identified on the Play Store include cryptocurrency management applications, social benefit aid tools, Gasprom investment clones, photo editors, and a launcher themed after iOS 15. The majority of fake investment apps trick the victims to design a new account and deposit money supposedly for trading, which is simply transferred to the fraudster’s bank account. Other apps attempt to trick the user into signing up for expensive subscriptions. 

The user reviews under the app describe tactics that resemble subscription scams, charging $2 per week for verification or ad removals, yet offering nothing in return. As the report details, apps discovered by security analysts will load affiliate service sites and enable paid subscriptions through the Wap Click technology after tricking the user into entering their phone number.  

To mitigate the risks, researchers advised installing the apps from trustworthy sources, checking user reviews, scrutinizing permission requests upon installation, and monitoring battery and internet data consumption afterward. Also, to monitor the status of Google Play Protect regularly and add a second layer of protection by using a mobile security tool from a reputable vendor.

Telegram has Experienced a Global Outage


On Thursday, March 3, the popular messenger Telegram experienced a failure. Users reported about the problems on the website of the service Downdetector, which tracks problems with access to Internet resources. 

According to Downdetector, the failure occurred at about 14 o'clock Moscow time. The majority of those who left complaints (56 percent) reported problems with the server connection. Users also noted problems with receiving messages (22 percent) and the operation of the application (23 percent). 

The failure affected residents of Russian cities, including Moscow and St. Petersburg. Users from Ukraine and Belarus also complained about the problems. 

The other day Pavel Durov published the following statement: "We do not want Telegram to be used as a tool to exacerbate conflicts and incite interethnic discord. In the event of an escalation of the situation, we will consider the possibility of partially or completely restricting the operation of Telegram channels in the countries involved during the conflict." 

According to him, recently Telegram has been increasingly used to spread fakes and unverified data related to the war, and the administration does not have the opportunity to check all publications for authenticity. However, soon Durov promised not to limit the work of the messenger in Ukraine. 

According to him, "a lot of users have asked us not to consider disabling Telegram channels for the period of the conflict, since we are the only source of information for them." But he urges users to "double-check and not take for granted the data that is published in Telegram channels during this difficult period." 

It is worth noting that in the week since the beginning of Russia's military operation in Ukraine, news channels in the Telegram messenger have added 19.5 million new subscribers. Another Russian social network, created at the time by Pavel Durov, is experiencing a new surge in popularity due to technical problems of other social networks. In VK, views in the news feed increased by 5% over the week, and the average daily number of video views increased by 15%. People are looking on platforms for up-to-date information from media that are subject to hacker attacks, and from eyewitnesses of events. 

Earlier, CySecurity News reported that three popular foreign social networks - Facebook, Instagram and Twitter began to receive complaints from residents of Russia in large numbers.

Samsung Delivered 100 Million Phones with Faulty Encryption


Samsung is thought to have shipped 100 million smartphones with flawed encryption, including models ranging from the 2017 Galaxy S8 to last year's Galaxy S21. Tel Aviv University researchers discovered "serious" cryptographic design defects that might have allowed attackers to steal the devices' hardware-based cryptographic keys, keys that unlock the vast trove of security-critical data present in smartphones. 

To keep crucial security operations isolated from normal apps, Android devices, which almost all employ Arm-compatible silicon, rely on a Trusted Execution Environment (TEE) backed by Arm's TrustZone technology. TEEs use their own operating system, TrustZone Operating System (TZOS), and it is up to suppliers to integrate cryptographic features within TZOS. 

According to the researchers, the Android Keystore provides hardware-backed cryptographic key management via the Keymaster Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL). Samsung implemented the HAL with Keymaster TA, a Trusted Application running in the TrustZone that performs cryptographic activities such as key generation, encryption, attestation, and signature creation in a safe environment. The outcomes of these TEE crypto calculations can subsequently be used in apps that run in less secure Android environments. 

The Keymaster TA saves cryptographic keys as blobs — the keys are wrapped (encrypted using AES-GCM) so that they may be saved in the Android file system. They should, in theory, only be readable within the TEE. 

Samsung, on the other hand, failed to successfully deploy Keymaster TA in its Galaxy S8, S9, S10, S20, and S21 phones. The researchers reverse engineered the Keymaster application and demonstrated that they could use an Initialization Vector (IV) reuse attack to get keys from hardware-protected key blobs. The IV is supposed to be a unique number each time, ensuring that the AES-GCM encryption operation provides a different result even when the same plain text is encrypted multiple times. 

According to the experts, the problem isn't simply with how Samsung handled encryption. According to the Tel Aviv University's study, these issues arise as a result of companies – specifically, Samsung and Qualcomm – keeping their cryptography designs close to the vest.

“Vendors including Samsung and Qualcomm maintain secrecy around their implementation and design of TZOSs and TAs,” they wrote in their paper. “As we have shown, there are dangerous pitfalls when dealing with cryptographic systems. The design and implementation details should be well audited and reviewed by independent researchers and should not rely on the difficulty of reverse engineering proprietary systems.”

Every Tenth Stalking and Espionage Attack in the World is Directed at Android Users from Russia


According to analysts at ESET (an international developer of antivirus software headquartered in Slovakia), commercial developers who openly offer spyware to control spouses or children are gaining popularity. 

"ESET global telemetry data for the period from September to December 2021 shows an increase in spyware activity by more than 20%. At the same time, every tenth stalking and espionage attack in the world is directed at Android users from Russia," the company's press service reported. 

ESET threat researcher Lukas Stefanko reported that unwanted stalking software, according to him, in most cases is distributed by attackers through clones of legal applications downloaded from unofficial stores. 

Alexander Dvoryansky, Director of Special Projects at Angara Security, confirms that Android spyware is very common and continues to gain popularity. According to him, it is advantageous for attackers to develop malicious software for this operating system because of its widespread use. Android smartphones accounted for 84.5% of total device sales in 2021. 

According to Lucas Stefanko, it is not uncommon for stalker software to be installed on smartphones to track them in case they are stolen or lost. Despite Google's ban on advertising stalker apps, there are apps available on Google Play that are positioned as private detective or parental control tools. In 2018, the Supreme Court allowed the acquisition and use of spy equipment to ensure their own security, so the demand for software promoted as "monitoring one's mobile devices" has increased. But many install it covertly on the phones of relatives or employees for espionage. 

If the program is installed on the phone openly and with the consent of a person, then there will be nothing illegal in tracking geolocation, as well as obtaining other information, says lawyer KA Pen & Paper by Alexander Kharin. However, secretly installing a spyware program on a phone can result in a penalty of up to two years in prison, and for a developer, the term can be up to four years. But so far, criminal cases on the fact of stalking are rarely initiated. 

Earlier, CySecurity News reported that the exact location of any Russian on the black market can be found for about 130 dollars.

The Russian Expert Listed the Main Signs of Smartphone Surveillance


Along with the unconditional benefits, the smart devices around us also carry a number of dangers. Thus, with the help of a smartphone, attackers can gain access to the personal data of its owner. According to Evgeny Kashkin, associate professor of the Department of Intelligent Information Security Systems at RTU MIREA, there are several signs that may indirectly indicate that your smartphone has become a spy. 

"An important point, in this case, is the requirement for applications to use a camera, microphone, as well as access to data (images and videos) on the phone during installation. Of course, you can disagree with this point during the installation, but most likely, then the application will not work at all or will work incorrectly," the expert explains. 

According to him, for a number of applications, these access rights are mandatory for work, but there are applications where "such rights for normal operation are simply absurd." For example, a home internet account status application. 

Another important factor, in his opinion, is the use of geolocation in applications. At the same time, it`s not only about GPS, but also the use of cellular data, as well as connections to various web resources. Such an approach, on the one hand, can greatly facilitate the search for the right companies within walking distance in a number of search engines, but, on the other hand, the cell phone conducts a "total" tracking of your movements. The key question, in this case, is how the data will be used by those who collect it. 

A number of companies have gone even further in this context. They started tracking the email messages of the users. Thus, with the banal purchase of an electronic plane ticket, the system will notify you in advance of the departure date, and on the day of departure, it will build you a route to the airport, taking into account traffic jams. 

He also advises paying attention to the sudden and uneven loss of battery power. This may indicate that a malicious program is running in the background that can use the phone to carry out a DDOS attack. 

Another alarming symptom is the sudden freezing of the phone or even turning it off for no objective reason. And finally, the occurrence of noises and extraneous sounds during a conversation may also indicate that your phone is being monitored. 

Spanish Police Arrested SIM Swappers who Stole Money from Victims Bank Accounts


The Spanish National Police have arrested eight suspected members of a criminal organisation who used SIM swapping assaults to steal money from the victims' bank accounts. 

SIM switching assaults are used by criminals to get control of victims' phone numbers by duping mobile operator workers into transferring their numbers to SIMs controlled by the fraudsters. The attackers can steal money, cryptocurrency, and personal information, including contacts linked with online accounts, once a SIM has been stolen. Criminals could take over social media accounts and utilise SMS to circumvent 2FA services utilized by online services, including financial services. 

In the incident under investigation by Spanish police, the cybercriminal gained the victims' personal information and bank details via fraudulent emails in which they pretended to be their bank. The fraudsters were able to falsify the victims' official documents and use them to dupe phone store staff into issuing them with replica SIM cards. They were able to overcome SMS-based 2FA needed to access bank accounts and take the money once they had the SIM cards. 

The press release published by the Spanish National Police stated, “Agents of the National Police have dismantled a criminal organization dedicated, presumably, to bank fraud through the duplication of SIM cards. There are eight detainees based in Catalonia and acting throughout Spain who, through malicious messages and posing as a bank, obtained personal information and bank details to access the accounts of the victims whose identity they usurped through the falsification of official documents. With this, they deceived the employees of phone stores to obtain duplicate SIM cards and, in this way, have access to the bank’s security confirmation messages. In this way they could operate in online banking and access bank accounts to empty them after receiving security confirmation messages from the banks.”

The first SIM swapping attack linked to this group occurred in March 2021, when Spanish authorities received two reports about fraudulent transactions in different parts of the country. Crooks used bank transfers and digital quick payment services based in the region of Barcelona to launder the stolen funds. Seven people were arrested in Barcelona and one in Seville as a byproduct of the operation. The suspects' bank accounts were also banned by the authorities. 

The FBI announced this week that SIM swap attacks have increased, with the objective of stealing millions of dollars from victims by hijacking their mobile phone numbers. According to the FBI, US individuals have lost more than $68 million as a result of SIM switching assaults in 2021, with the number of complaints and damages nearly doubling since 2018. The FBI's Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3) received 1,611 SIM switching assault reports in 2018, compared to 320 complaints between 2018 and 2002, resulting in a total loss of $12 million. 

Individuals should take the following steps, as per the FBI: 

• Do not post details regarding financial assets, such as bitcoin ownership or investment, on social networking platforms or forums. 
• Do not disclose the mobile number account details to representatives who ask for the account password or pin over the phone. Verify the call by calling the mobile carrier's customer support number. • Posting personal information online, such as your phone number, address, or other identifying information, is not a good idea. 
• To access online accounts, use a variety of unique passwords. 
• Any changes in SMS-based connectivity should be noted. 
• To gain access to online accounts, use strong multi-factor authentication solutions such as biometrics, physical security tokens, or standalone authentication software. 
• For easy login on mobile device applications, do not save passwords, usernames, or other information. 

On the other hand, mobile providers should take the following safety measures, according to the FBI: 

• Employees should be instructed and training sessions on SIM swapping should be held. 
• Examine incoming email addresses containing formal correspondence for minor differences that could make fraudulent addresses appear real and match the names of actual clients. 
• Establish stringent security standards that allow workers to effectively check customer credentials before transferring their phone numbers to a new device.

Durov Suspected WhatsApp of Intentionally Introducing Vulnerabilities


Russian entrepreneur and founder of the Telegram messenger Pavel Durov while criticizing the WhatsApp service said that the messenger, owned by Meta, was hardly ever secure, in his Telegram channel.

Durov also suspects that the service may intentionally introduce vulnerabilities. "Since the creation of WhatsApp, there has hardly been a moment when it was secure: every few months, researchers discover a new security problem in the application," he added. 

Durov noted that every few months researchers find a new security issue in the application. He recalled that he had already spoken out about the danger of the service in 2020. Since then, as the creator of Telegram considered, the situation with WhatsApp has not changed. 

As an illustration of his words, he cited a study by the American information technology company Boldend, which revealed a vulnerability in WhatsApp. The gap in the messenger has existed for several years and allows attackers to gain access to the correspondence of their victims unnoticed. 

In addition, the creator of Telegram commented on a Forbes report, which claims that Facebook investor Peter Thiel secretly funded a startup with the ability to hack WhatsApp. "WhatsApp users' messages have been available for attacks by potential hackers for years," Durov said about the report. 

"It would be hard to believe that WhatsApp technicians are so often incompetent. Telegram, a much more technically sophisticated application, has never had such serious security problems," Durov concluded. 

In December, Durov said that his Telegram remains protected from the influence of third parties. He cited the example of the FBI report, which claimed that the bureau has access to Viber, iMessage, WhatsApp, and Line, but Telegram, Threema, Signal, and Wickr do not transmit correspondence to third parties. At the same time, it was noted that Telegram can, at the request of law enforcement officers, issue the IP address and phone number of the user. 

Earlier, Pavel Durov's team advised the Ministry of Finance of Ukraine on cryptocurrencies. The Minister said that he actively uses the Telegram messenger for fast communications.

New Safari Vulnerability Could have given Attackers Access to Your Mac Webcam


Apple has awarded a cybersecurity student $100,500 (roughly Rs 75,54,000) in bounty rewards for finding a bug in Apple’s macOS, which enabled malicious actors to access the victims’ logged-in online accounts and even get into their webcams. 

Ryan Pickren, reported the flaw to Apple last summer, and was patched earlier this month. Pickren is no stranger to Apple bugs, as he uncovered an iPhone and Mac camera vulnerability earlier in April 2020. Now, he has exposed another Mac webcam bug that allows attackers to breach into the device and access sensitive user information. 

According to a report by AppleInsider, this Apple Mac webcam bug was related to a series of issues with iCloud and Safari browser. 

The vulnerability grants the hacker "full access to every website you've visited in Safari, meaning that if you're visiting my evil website on one tab, and then your other tab, you have Twitter open, I can jump into that tab and do everything you can from that screen. So, it does allow me to fully perform an account takeover on every website you visited in Safari," Pickren explained in a blog post. 

According to Pickren, it all began with exploiting the Safari browser (Safari v15 when he attempted this) and gaining access to the webarchive files. Webarchives are local storage for the Safari browser where it saves local copies of websites to open them faster. This wouldn’t be a problem, were it not for the simple fact that the downloaded files could later be altered by the author. So, a victim could download an innocent .PNG file, only to have it transform into a malicious webarchive file. 

“In essence, the victim has given the attacker permission to plant a polymorphic file onto their machine and the permission to remotely launch it at any moment. Yikes. Agreed to view my PNG file yesterday? Well, today it's an executable binary that will be automatically launched whenever I want,” Picker explained in a further blog post.

To open the webarchive file, Pickren further explains, he needed to bypass the Gatekeeper restriction, which turned out to be relatively simple. He used a fileloc to point to a local app (a technique known as Arbitrary File Execution) which was a great example of how even with macOS Gatekeeper enabled, an attacker could trick approved apps into performing malicious tasks 

Typically, researchers disclose the exploits after the company has fixed the issue, which explains why Pickren is posting about this now. The reason is to ensure that the flaw is patched before attackers can start exploiting it. 

Two Critical Zero-Day Bugs Identified in Zoom Users and MMR Servers


Two critical bugs in videoconferencing app 'Zoom' could have led to remote exploitation in users and MMR servers. Natalie Silvanovich of Google's Project Zero bug-hunting team on Tuesday released an analysis of the security bugs; the vulnerabilities were uncovered as part of an investigation after a zero-click attack was demonstrated at Pwn2Own.

The researcher spotted two different flaws, a buffer overflow issue that impacted both Zoom users and Zoom Multimedia Routers (MMRs), and the second one transmits audio and video content between clients in on-premise deployments. Additionally, the platform possessed a lack of Address Space Layout Randomization (ALSR), a security mechanism that helps to guard against memory corruption assaults.

"In the past, I hadn't prioritized reviewing Zoom because I believed that any attack against a Zoom client would require multiple clicks from a user," the researcher explained in a blog post. "That said, it's likely not that difficult for a dedicated attacker to convince a target to join a Zoom call even if it takes multiple clicks, and the way some organizations use Zoom presents interesting attack scenarios."

"ASLR is arguably the most important mitigation in preventing exploitation of memory corruption, and most other mitigations rely on it on some level to be effective," Silvanovich noted. "There is no good reason for it to be disabled in the vast majority of software." 

As MMR servers process call content including audio and video, the researcher says that the bugs are "especially concerning" – and with compromise, any virtual meeting without end-to-end encryption enabled would have been exposed to eavesdropping, 

As per recent reports, the vulnerabilities were reported to the vendor and patched on November 24, 2021, and Zoom has since enabled ASLR. While most video conferencing systems use open-source libraries such as WebRTC or PJSIP for implementing multimedia communications, Project Zero called out Zoom's use of proprietary formats and protocols as well as its high licensing fees (nearly $1,500) as barriers to security research.

"These barriers to security research likely mean that Zoom is not investigated as often as it could be, potentially leading to simple bugs going undiscovered," Silvanovich said. "Closed-source software presents unique security challenges, and Zoom could do more to make their platform accessible to security researchers and others who wish to evaluate it." 

Last year in November, Zoom rolled out automatic updates for the software's desktop customers on Windows and macOS, as well as on mobile. Previously, this feature was only accessible to business users.

Swiss Army Bans WhatsApp at Work


A spokesman for the Swiss army announced Thursday that the use of WhatsApp while on duty has been prohibited, in favour of a Swiss messaging service regarded more safe in terms of data security. 

Using other messaging applications like Signal and Telegram on soldiers' personal phones during service activities is likewise barred. 

Commanders and chiefs of staff got an email from headquarters at the end of December advising that their troops switch to the Swiss-based Threema. According to army spokesman Daniel Reist, the recommendation applies "to everyone," including conscripts serving in the military and those returning for refresher courses. 

Switzerland is known for its neutrality. However, the landlocked European country's long-standing position is one of armed neutrality and has mandatory conscription for men.

During operations to assist hospitals and the vaccination campaign in Switzerland's efforts to prevent the Covid-19 pandemic, the concern of using messaging apps on duty came up, as per Reist. The Swiss army will bear the cost of downloading Threema, which is already used by other Swiss public agencies, for four Swiss francs ($4.35, 3.85 euros). 

Other messaging services, such as WhatsApp, are governed by the US Cloud Act, which permits US authorities to access data held by US operators, even if it is stored on servers located outside of the nation. Threema, which claims to have ten million users, describes itself as an instant messenger that collects as little data as possible. It is not supported by advertisements. 

The company states on its website, "All communication is end-to-end encrypted, and the app is open source." 

According to an army spokesman mentioned in a Tamedia daily report, data security is one of the reasons for the policy change. As per local surveys, WhatsApp is the most popular messenger app among 16- to 64-year-olds in Switzerland.