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Sophos 2023 Threat Report: Cryptocurrency Will Fuel Cyberattacks

The Sophos 2022 Threat Report, released by Sophos, a pioneer in next-generation cybersecurity, illustrates how the gravitational influence of ransomware is attracting other cyber threats to building one vast, linked ransomware delivery system, having essential ramifications for IT security.

Entry-level hackers can buy malware and spyware installation tools from illicit markets like Genesis, and also sell illegal passwords or other data in mass. Access brokers increasingly sell other criminal groups' credentials and susceptible software exploits.

A new ransomware-as-a-service economy has emerged in the last decade due to the rising popularity of ransomware. In 2022, this as-a-service business model has grown, and almost every component of the cybercrime toolkit from initial infection to methods of evading detection is now accessible for purchase, according to the researchers.

Several step-by-step tools and methods that attackers might use to spread the ransomware were revealed when an affiliate of the Conti ransomware published the deployment guide supplied by the operators. RaaS affiliates and other ransomware operators can use malware distribution platforms and IABs to discover and target potential victims once they have the virus they require. The second significant trend predicted by Sophos is being fueled by this.

Gootloader was launching innovative hybrid operations in 2021, as per Sophos's research, that blended broad campaigns with rigorous screening to identify targets for particular malware packs.

Ransomware distribution and delivery will continue to be adapted by well-known cyber threats. Which include spam, spyware, loaders, droppers, and other common malware in addition to increasingly sophisticated, manually handled first access brokers.

Data theft and exposure, threatening phone calls, distributed denial of service (DDoS) assaults, and other pressure tactics were all included in the list of ten pressure methods Sophos incident responders compiled in 2021.

Cryptocurrency will continue to feed cybercrimes like ransomware and unlawful crypto mining. In 2021, Sophos researchers discovered crypto miners like Lemon Duck and MrbMiner, which installed themselves on machines and servers by using newly revealed vulnerabilities and targets that had already been compromised by ransomware operators. Sophos anticipates that the trend will continue until international cryptocurrencies are better regulated.

In addition to promoting their products, cybercrime vendors sometimes post job openings to hire attackers with specialized capabilities. In addition to profiles of their abilities and qualifications, job seekers are posting help-wanted sites on some markets, which also have technical hiring personnel.

As web services grow, different kinds of credentials, particularly cookies, can be utilized in a variety of ways to penetrate networks more deeply and even get through MFA. Credential theft continues to be one of the simplest ways for new criminals to enter gray markets and start their careers.

An Online Date Led to an Inquiry into 'Systemic' Failures at American Express

 

Last summer, John Smith* had just returned to Sydney after more than a decade abroad when he met someone online. He began chatting with a man named Tahn Daniel Lee on the dating app Grindr. Lee was undergoing treatment for COVID at the time, so they communicated online for a few weeks before meeting in Sydney's Surry Hills for their first date - a Japanese dinner followed by Messina ice cream. The date would be one of many in a relationship that progressed quickly before taking a dark turn when Smith began to suspect Lee was watching his bank accounts.

The Age and The Sydney Morning Herald can disclose that American Express, one of the world's largest financial companies, would not only dismiss Smith's initial complaint without proper investigation but would also provide misleading information during an external inquiry. It comes after two major ASX-listed companies, Optus and Medibank, revealed sensitive identification and health data to criminals, igniting a national debate about how to best deal with emerging cyber threats.

The "insider threat," according to cybersecurity experts, is a major risk, and the Privacy Commissioner's inability to penalize companies that violate the law has created a culture of impunity among corporate Australia.

“Because, what is the recourse? Businesses just aren’t doing the risk management that’s required. The tone starts from the top, ” says former Australian Federal Police investigator turned cyber expert Nigel Phair.

Smith's first assumption of Lee was that he had a charming smile, and the relationship developed quickly. Lee worked as a relationship manager for American Express Centurion, an exclusive club for black cardholders who spend at least $500,000 per year.

Smith had a platinum American Express card from living in the United States, but Lee suggested he sign up in Australia so he could illustrate how to maximize the benefits. He consented and began using American Express as his primary banking card shortly thereafter. After a series of comments about items Smith had purchased, places he had been, or payments he had made, he became skeptical that Lee was watching his transactions.

“I asked him how he was able to do this without my consent or authority (one-time pin etc), and he replied, ‘because the system is completely open, I have god mode’,” Smith wrote in a complaint later filed with American Express.

Smith has autism, and while he is classified as "high functioning," he occasionally struggles to recognize inappropriate behavior. He noticed "warning signs" about Lee but ignored them while traveling to Hawaii and Hamilton Island with his new partner, he claims.

During one of these trips, Smith became uneasy with the manner in which Lee discussed his clients' affairs, including major food distributor Primo Foods, which he claimed siphoned millions of dollars to the Cayman Islands. Lee later texted, "FYI, everything I tell you about work is highly confidential." 

By April, he had attempted to end the relationship and had warned Lee that he would report his behavior to American Express. Lee reacted negatively to this. He begged Smith to continue the relationship and, at one point, called Smith's close friend out of the blue to persuade her not to file a complaint. This was the breaking point. He was hell-bent on reporting Lee.

Amex: ‘No inappropriate access’

At the same time, another American Express employee noticed unusual activity on Smith's account. Lee was subjected to an internal investigation, which swiftly cleared him of any wrongdoing. On May 26, the company wrote to Smith, claiming Lee was not in a position to access his account and, in any case, there was training and processes in place to protect customer data.

Unconvinced, Smith asked American Express to confirm that Lee's access to his account had been blocked and reported the Primo Foods discussions. Smith claims that the following week, during a phone call, he was told that if Lee had looked at his account, it was no big deal because they were partners, and discussing Centurion's clients was also no cause for concern.

Smith filed a complaint with the Privacy Commissioner, who directed it to the Australian Financial Complaints Authority. AFCA immediately requested a meeting with American Express to verify that Lee had lost the rights to Smith's account.

The company's response was quick, but it turned out to be incorrect.  “We confirm that the employee has no access to [Smith]’s account,” Amex responded.

In subsequent letters between AFCA, Smith, and American Express, the company continued to imply that there had been no inappropriate access or violation of privacy laws. Until the plot shifted. In August, three months after Lee's suspicious activity was discovered, Smith was notified by American Express that Lee had indeed accessed his personal information.  

Lee accessed Smith's private account nine times between February and April of this year, according to digital access logs. American Express then stated that while it was impossible to prevent Lee from accessing the account, he would be disciplined and the account would be monitored to ensure no further intrusions.

“American Express is unable to practically restrict American Express employees from being able to access any specific Card member data. We acknowledge that [Smith] feels uncomfortable with his previous partner access to his personal information and have made every effort to implement controls to further protect his data,” the company wrote in a letter.

In a final decision issued this month, AFCA determined that American Express violated privacy laws by letting Lee to access his accounts without authorization both before and after the relationship. It awarded Smith $2000 in damages but did not order an apology or absolve the company of any wrongdoing.

“I am satisfied the financial firm has investigated the matters raised by the complainant, and in the circumstances, it has responded appropriately,” AFCA found.

American Express declined to answer specific questions about how it investigated Smith's complaint or what action it took against Lee, but stated it maintains the "highest levels of integrity" and has cooperated with AFCA.

“Whilst they made a determination against us, they concluded that American Express had investigated and responded appropriately,” the company said. “We are satisfied that this matter poses no risk to the integrity of our systems. Protecting the privacy of our customers and the integrity of our systems remains our utmost priority.”

Current laws allow for fines of up to $2.2 million for each unauthorized access. The federal government is considering raising the penalty to $50 million per breach, which would mean that American Express could have faced penalties totaling $450 million for the nine breaches.

“Companies need to take this issue around unauthorized access to information more seriously because the penalties are significant,” CyberCX privacy law expert David Batch says. “But in reality, the Privacy Commissioner has historically not handed down those fines.”

Smith was informed in October that AFCA's systemic issues team had agreed to investigate American Express's handling of Smith's case. This team investigates serious violations and systemic issues and has the authority to refer cases to other regulators, such as the Privacy Commissioner, however, its findings are a little transparent. AFCA was unable to comment on whether the promised investigation would be carried out.

According to Nigel Phair, Professor of Cybersecurity at the University of New South Wales, the "insider threat" is a major concern for businesses, where the actions of rogue employees can jeopardize the security of the entire organization.

He claims that the government's failure to implement harsh penalties on companies that mishandle their customers' data fosters a culture of impunity among Australian corporations.

For Smith, American Express and the system designed to hold companies accountable have let him down. He now makes a point of only using the card in ways that do not reveal his location. Requests for comment from Lee and Primo Foods were not returned.

*Not his real name. He asked that his identity be kept confidential.

China-Based Sophisticated Phishing Campaign Utilizes 42K Domains

 

In a widespread phishing campaign, a Chinese hacking group known as "Fangxiao" is using thousands of imposter domains to target victims. Thousands are at risk from the Fangxiao phishing campaign. Thousands of people are at risk as a result of a massive phishing campaign run by the Chinese hacking group "Fangxiao." 

To facilitate phishing attacks, this campaign used 42,000 imposter domains. These bogus domains are intended to direct users to adware (advertising malware) apps, giveaways, and dating websites. The 42,000 phony domains used in this campaign were discovered by Cyjax, a cybersecurity and threat solutions company. The scam was described as sophisticated in a Cyjax blog post by Emily Dennison and Alana Witten, with the ability to "exploit the reputation of international, trusted brands in multiple verticals including retail, banking, travel, pharmaceuticals, travel, and energy".

The scam commences with a nefarious WhatsApp message impersonating a well-known brand. Emirates, Coca-Cola, McDonald's, and Unilever are examples of such brands. This message contains a link to a webpage that has been enticingly designed. The redirection site is determined by the target's IP address as well as their user agent.

For example, McDonald's may advertise a free giveaway. When the victim completes their registration for the giveaway, the Triada Trojan malware can be downloaded. Malware can also be installed through the download of a specific app, which victims are instructed to install in order to continue participating in the giveaway.

Fangxiao's infrastructure is mostly protected by CloudFlare, an American Content Delivery Network, according to Cyjax's blog post about this campaign (CDN). It was also discovered that the imposter domains were registered on GoDaddy, Namecheap, and Wix, with their names shifting on a regular basis.

The majority of these phishing domains were registered with.top, with the rest mostly with.cn,.cyou,.xyz,.tech, and.work.

The Fangxiao Group Is Not a New Concept

The Fangxiao hacking collective has been active for some time. The domains used in this campaign were discovered by Cyjax in 2019 and have been increasing in number since then. Fangxiao added over 300 unique domains in just one day in October 2022.

.The group's location in China is not 100% confirmed, but Cyjax has determined it with high confidence. The use of Mandarin in one of the group's exposed control panels is one indication of this. Cyjax also speculated that the campaign's goal is most likely monetary gain.
 
Phishing is one of the most common cybercrime tactics today, and it can take many different forms. Phishing attacks, especially those that are highly sophisticated, can be difficult to detect. Although spam filters and antivirus software can help to reduce phishing attacks, it's still important to trust your instincts and avoid any communications that don't seem quite right.

 Optus Data Leak, Victims Lost $40k via Alleged Identity Theft

The owner of an Elsternwick eatery, whose information was made public when Optus was breached in September, had taken out close to $10,000 of his ANZ bank account.

Over $60,000 was fraudulently applied for in credit card, internet shopping, and personal loan applications. Two weeks ago, Jim Marinis became aware of a problem. He quickly learned that numerous additional cash withdrawals had been made at ANZ locations all throughout Melbourne in his name. 

After sensitive data was made available online as a result of the hack, the Australian Federal Police initiated Operation Guardian in September to protect Optus customers who were at a high risk of identity theft.

Marinis, who shares a home with his wife Mary-Jane Daffy and two daughters, has now lost approximately $40,000 due to teller withdrawals and claims things are just getting worse despite the fact that the applications for the voucher, credit card, and loan were initially granted before being canceled.

A Sydney youngster was accused in relation to an SMS hoax that demanded money from dozens of Optus customers whose data was leaked, and he appeared in court last week.

Meanwhile, a spokeswoman for Optus responded to a question about Marinis' situation by stating: "No customer payment details, including any direct debit or credit card information, nor passwords, including My Optus app logins, have been stolen in the cyberattack on Optus consumers."

Although Marinis was annoyed that a teller allegedly permitted cash withdrawals after he informed the bank of the suspected identity theft, he appreciated the efforts of ANZ's fraud team.

After the organization promised to pay for roughly 1 million new licenses for Optus customers in order to prevent them from identity theft, Marinis was also disappointed that VicRoads had not yet updated his license. 


Cyberattacks Spam Child Abuse on Facebook

When a reputable martial arts instructor posts child exploitation content on his Facebook page and spends a lot of money on Vietnamese ads for angler rods, something is obviously wrong. However, according to Jihad Bekai, head of the G-Force martial arts school in Melbourne, it has been utterly hard to persuade Facebook's owner Meta of that. 

Bekai was a victim of Facebook hackers last month. They employed a well-known and popular ruse that involves uploading images of child sexual assault on a user's personal Facebook page. 

As a result, Facebook automatically responds by banning the user for breaking its 'community standards.' While the user is occupied with the aftermath and attempting to regain access to Facebook, the hackers pursue their true objective, which is typically a credit card connected to a business page the user manages.

In addition, Bekai claimed he had been caught in a frustrating feedback loop with Facebook, whose online customer service forms fail to recognize the absurdity of his situation. Over the course of a month, the hackers ran up more than 50 charges totaling more than $1000 on Bekai's credit card for Facebook ads. 

Bekai asked, "If their artificial intelligence is so good that it can detect child pornography, why can't it put two and two together and realize it would be unusual for me to be doing 10 years of martial arts videos and suddenly decide child pornography is my thing, so much so that I want to display it online for everyone to see in a public post."

The martial arts school of Bekai only uses social media for advertising. One of the main ways potential consumers learn about his company is through his Facebook profile. Bekai lost access to the Facebook and Instagram accounts for his martial arts school. He also oversees a Melbourne martial arts competition and a cafe. He is no longer able to access such social media profiles.

Hackers gained access

Bekai claimed that the thing that aggravates him the most about being a target of Facebook hackers is that he appeared to take all the necessary precautions to protect his accounts. He claimed that the hackers seem to have gained access to his accounts by somehow designating themselves as an admin on his Facebook Commerce account, which brings together personal and business sites as well as credit cards in one location.

The email, which Bekai initially dismissed as spam, was then followed by another informing her that a second person had been added to the account. He claimed that out of desperation, he had turned to a lawyer to draft a legal notice to Meta on his behalf. He had also reported the incident to the Australian Cyber Security Centre (ACSC) but has not yet heard back.

In Australia, the ACSC is receiving reports of cybercrime once every seven minutes as the number of incidents rises, according to a report released on Friday. It is important to note that major social media companies have faced criticism in the past for fake news, hate speech, and misinformation that spread on their platforms. There have also been repeated calls to hold these companies more accountable.

The Four Major Types of Spoofing Attacks and How to Avoid Them

 

Spoofing is the act of concealing a communication or identity so that it appears to be from a reliable, authorized source. Spoofing attacks can take many forms, ranging from the common email spoofing attacks used in phishing campaigns to caller ID spoofing attacks used to commit fraud. 

As part of a spoofing attack, attackers may also target more technical elements of an organization's network, such as an IP address, domain name system (DNS) server, or Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) service. 

Spoofing attacks typically prey on trusted relationships by impersonating a person or organization known to the victim. These messages may even be personalized to the victim in some cases, such as whale phishing attacks that use email spoofing or website spoofing. there are various types of spoofing attacks. Here are three of the most common.
  • IP spoofing attack
An IP spoofing attack occurs when an attacker attempts to impersonate an IP address in order to pretend to be another user. The attacker sends packets from a false source address during an IP address spoofing attack. These IP packets are sent to network devices and function similarly to a DoS attack. To overwhelm a device with too many packets, the attacker uses multiple packet addresses.
 
IP spoofing attacks, which are one of the more common types of spoofing attacks, can be detected using a network analyzer or bandwidth monitoring tool. Monitoring your network will allow you to monitor normal traffic usage and detect abnormal traffic. This alerts  that something isn't right and allows you to investigate further.

If looking for IP addresses and flow data in particular that can lead you to illegal internet traffic. Detecting IP spoofing attacks early is critical because they frequently occur as part of DDoS (Direct Denial of Service) attacks, which can bring the entire network down.
  • Email Spoofing Attacks
Email spoofing attacks occur when an attacker sends an email that appears to be from another sender. The sender field is spoofing in these attacks to display bogus contact information. The attacker pretends to be this entity and then sends you an email asking for information. These attacks are frequently used to impersonate administrators and request account information from other members of staff.
 
Email spoofing attacks are perhaps the most dangerous because they directly target employees. Responding to the wrong email can give an attacker access to sensitive information. If you receive a spoofed email, your first line of defense should be to be skeptical of email display names.

Attackers frequently spoof display names, so double-check the email address. If the email contains any links, you can open them in a new window to see if they are legitimate. It's also a good idea to look for spelling mistakes and other inaccuracies that could indicate the sender isn't legitimate.
  • DNS Spoofing Attacks
DNS, or domain name system, attacks jumble up the list of public IP addresses. DNS servers maintain a database of public IP addresses and hostnames that are used to aid in network navigation. When a DNS attack occurs, the attacker alters domain names, causing them to be rerouted to a new IP address.

One example is when you enter a website URL and are directed to a spoofed domain rather than the website you intended to visit. This is a common method for attackers to introduce worms and viruses into networks.

It is a good idea to use a tool like dnstraceroute to detect a DNS spoofing attack. DNS spoofing attacks rely on an attacker spoofing the DNS response. Using dnstraceroute, you can see where the DNS request was answered. You'll be able to see the DNS server's location and whether someone spoofed the DNS response.

DHL: Most-Spoofed Brand in Phishing

 

DHL is the most spoofed brand in phishing emails, according to Check Point. Between July and September 2022, crooks most frequently used the brand name in their attempts to steal personal and payment information from marks, with the shipping giant accounting for 22% of all global phishing attempts intercepted by the cybersecurity firm. 

On June 28, DHL informed customers that it was the victim of a "major global scam and phishing attack," and that it was "working hard to block the fraudulent websites and emails." In the phishing attempts, criminals used a tried-and-true phony message, falsely alerting customers that their package could not be delivered and requesting personal and payment information to proceed with the delivery.

These types of urgent requests — to change a password or, in this case, delivery or payment information — are especially effective at stealing credentials, as we saw with the recent Oktapus cybercrime spree.

Check Point discovered one phishing email that attempted to impersonate DHL and was sent from the address "info@lincssourcing[.]com." The report stated that crooks altered it to appear as if the sender was "DHL Express."

The subject line of the email, "Undelivered DHL(Parcel/Shipment)," as well as the message, attempted to dupe the victim into clicking on a malicious link claiming that they needed to update their delivering address in order to receive the package. Of course, the URL does not actually lead to DHL's website. Instead, it redirects them to a bogus, attacker-controlled website with a form asking the victim to enter their name and password, which the crooks then steal.

These stolen credentials can then be used to obtain additional account information, such as payment information, or simply sold to other identity thieves on dark-web forums. While DHL tops the list of stolen brands, Check Point reports that Microsoft is in second place for third-quarter phishing scams, accounting for 16% of all campaigns based on brand recognition. LinkedIn, which topped the list in both the first and second quarters of this year, fell to third place with 11 percent.

Victims are more likely to click on a malicious link that appears to be sent from a trusted brand, which feeds the phishing pool. It is a low-cost crime with a high return on investment for criminals. Last year, phishing attacks were by far the most commonly reported cybercrime, with 323,972 reported to the FBI and victims losing $44.2 million.

Check Point detailed another brand-spoofing phish example in which criminals used a fake OneDrive email to try to steal a user's Microsoft account information. The message was sent from "websent@jointak[.]com[.]hk," with "OneDrive" as a bogus sender name, and the subject: "A document titled 'Proposal' has been shared with you on Onedrive."

The Microsoft-brand phish, like the DHL spoof, attempts to trick the victim into clicking on a malicious link that spoofs a Microsoft web app login page and then enter their account password. As a general rule, users should avoid emails that request personal information or credit card information.

New Phishing Campaign Targets Saudi Government Service Portal

 

Multiple phishing domains imitating Absher, the Saudi government service portal, have been set up to provide citizens with fraudulent services and steal their credentials. CloudSEK cybersecurity researchers made the discovery and published an advisory about the threat on Thursday. 

"The threat actors are targeting individuals by sending an SMS, along with a link, urging people to update their information on the Absher Portal," wrote the security experts. "The phishing website presents users with a fake login portal, compromising the login credentials." 

According to CloudSEK, after the bogus 'login,' a pop-up appears on the site requesting a four-digit one-time password (OTP) sent to the registered mobile number, which is most likely used to bypass multifactor authentication (MFA) on the legitimate Absher Portal. 

"Any four-digit number is accepted as an OTP without verification, and the victim successfully logs in to the fake portal," CloudSEK clarified. 

After completing the bogus login process, the user is prompted to fill out a registration form, revealing sensitive personally identifiable information (PII), before being redirected to a new page where they are asked to select a bank. They are then taken to a bogus bank login portal designed to steal their credentials. 

"After submitting the internet banking login details, a loading icon pops up, and the page gets stuck, while the user banking credentials have already been compromised," the security researchers wrote.

According to CloudSEK, government services in the Saudi region have recently become a prime target for cyber-criminals looking to compromise user credentials and use them to launch additional cyber-attacks.

"Multiple phishing domains have been registered to gain the PII of individuals in Saudi Arabia," the company wrote.

To lessen the impact of these attacks, CloudSEK urged government organizations to monitor phishing campaigns targeting citizens and to inform and educate them about the dangers, such as not clicking on suspicious links. The warning comes just weeks after CloudSEK discovered a separate phishing campaign targeting Saudi KFC and McDonald's customers.

 Sophos: Hackers Avoid Deep Fakes as Phishing Attacks are Effective

According to a prominent security counsel for the UK-based infosec business Sophos, the fear of deepfake scams is entirely exaggerated.

According to John Shier, senior security adviser for cybersecurity company Sophos, hackers may never need to utilize deepfakes on a large scale because there are other, more effective ways to deceive individuals into giving up personal information and financial data.

As per Shier, phishing and other types of social engineering are much more effective than deepfakes, which are artificial intelligence-generated videos that imitate human speech.

What are deepfakes?

Scammers frequently use technology to carry out 'Identity Theft'. In order to demonstrate the risks of deepfakes, researchers in 2018 employed the technology to assume the identity of former US President Barack Obama and disseminate a hoax online.

Shier believes that while deepfakes may be overkill for some kinds of fraud, romance scams—in which a scammer develops a close relationship with their victim online in order to persuade them to send them money—could make good use of the technology because videos will give an online identity inherent legitimacy.

Since deepfake technology has gotten simpler to access and apply, Eric Horvitz, chief science officer at Microsoft, outlines his opinion that in the near future, "we won't be able to tell if the person we're chatting to on a video conversation is real or an impostor."

The expert also anticipates that deepfakes will become more common in several sectors, including romance scams. Making convincing false personas requires a significant commitment of time, effort, and devotion, and adding a deepfake does not require much more work. Shier is concerned that deepfaked romance frauds might become an issue if AI makes it possible for the con artist to operate on a large scale.

Shier was hesitant to assign a date for industrialized deepfake bots, but he claimed that the required technology is becoming better and better every year.

The researcher noted that "AI experts make it sound like it is still a few years away from the huge effect." In the interim, we will observe well-funded criminal organizations carrying out the subsequent degree of compromise to deceive victims into writing checks into accounts.

Deepfakes have historically been employed primarily to produce sexualized images and movies, almost always featuring women.

Nevertheless, a Binance PR executive recently disclosed that fraudsters had developed a deepfaked clone that took part in Zoom calls and attempted to conduct bitcoin scams.

Deepfakes may not necessarily be a scammer's primary tactic, but security researchers at Trend Micro said last month that they are frequently used to augment other techniques. The lifelike computerized images have recently appeared in online advertisements, phony business meetings, and job seeker frauds. The distress is that anybody could become a victim because the internet is so pervasive.






This Unofficial WhatsApp Android App Caught Stealing Users’ Accounts

 

Kaspersky researchers discovered 'YoWhatsApp,' an unofficial WhatsApp Android app that steals access keys for users' accounts. Mod apps are promoted as unofficial versions of genuine apps that include features that the official version does not. 

YoWhatsApp is a fully functional messenger that supports extra features such as customising the interface and blocking access to specific chats. The tainted WhatsApp app requests the same permissions as the original messenger app, such as SMS access.

“To use the WhatsApp mod, users need to log in to their account of the legitimate app. However, along with all the new features, users also receive the Triada Trojan. Having infected the victim, attackers download and run malicious payloads on their device, as well as get hold of the keys to their account on the official WhatsApp app.” reported Kaspersky. 

“Along with the permissions needed for WhatsApp to work properly, this gives them the ability to steal accounts and get money from victims by signing them up for paid subscriptions that they are unaware of.”

This mod instals the Triada Trojan, which is capable of delivering other malicious payloads, issuing paid subscriptions, and even stealing WhatsApp accounts. More than 3,600 users have been targeted in the last two months, according to Kaspersky. The official Snaptube app promoted the YoWhatsApp Android app.

The malicious app was also discovered in the popular Vidmate mobile app, which is designed to save and watch YouTube videos. Unlike Snaptube, the malicious build was uploaded to Vidmate's internal store. YoWhatsApp v2.22.11.75 steals WhatsApp keys, enabling threat actors to take over users' accounts, according to Kaspersky researchers.

In 2021, Kaspersky discovered another modified version of WhatsApp for Android that offered additional features but was used to deliver the Triada Trojan. FMWhatsApp 16.80.0 is the modified version.

The experts also discovered the advertisement for a software development kit (SDK), which included a malicious payload downloader. The FMWhatsapp was created to collect unique device identifiers (Device IDs, Subscriber IDs, MAC addresses) as well as the name of the app package in which they are deployed.

To be protected, the researchers advise:
  • Only install applications from official stores and reliable resources
  • Remembering to check which permissions you give installed applications – some of them can be very dangerous
  • Installing a reliable mobile antivirus on your smartphone, such as Kaspersky Internet Security for Android. It will detect and prevent possible threats.
Kaspersky concluded, “Cybercriminals are increasingly using the power of legitimate software to distribute malicious apps. This means that users who choose popular apps and official installation sources may still fall victim to them. In particular, malware like Triada can steal an IM account, and for example, use it to send unsolicited messages, including malicious spam. The user’s money is also at risk, as the malware can easily set up paid subscriptions for the victim.”


Phishing Attack Spoofs Zoom to Steal Microsoft User Credentials

 

Phishing attacks work by imitating a well-known or trusted brand, product, or company, with the aim of duping recipients into disclosing sensitive account information. That was the case in a recent phishing campaign investigated by security firm Armorblox, in which the attacker impersonated Zoom in an attempt to compromise Microsoft user credentials. 

The phishing email, which was sent to over 21,000 users at a national healthcare company, had the subject line "For [name of recipient] on Today, 2022," with each user's actual name listed as the recipient. The email, which displayed the Zoom name and logo, stated that the person had two messages awaiting their response. The recipient had to click on the main link to read the alleged messages.

The main button would have directed users to a bogus landing page impersonating a Microsoft login page. The victims were directed at the site to enter their Microsoft account password in order to verify their identity before they could obtain the messages. To further silence them into a false sense of security, the landing page pre-populated the username field with the person's actual email address. Any Microsoft passwords entered on the page would, of course, be captured by the attackers.

The initial phishing email, sent from a valid domain, bypassed Microsoft Exchange email security controls because it passed the usual email authentication checks, such as DomainKeys Identified Mail, Sender Policy Framework, and Domain-based Message Authentication Reporting and Conformance. Instead, the emails were barred from being sent from reaching user inboxes by Armorblox security.

How to Protect Your Company from Phishing

Armorblox makes the following recommendations to help you protect your organisation and employees from these types of phishing attackers:

The email described in the report evaded Microsoft security measures, indicating that you should supplement your native email security with stronger and more layered tools. Consult Gartner's Market Guide for Email Security and Armorblox's 2022 Email Security Threat Report to find the right product.

Users are advised to:
  • Be wary of social engineering ploys.
  • Adopt proper password hygiene
  • Use multi-factor authentication

Russian Scam Industry Expands as a Result of Mobilization

 

After experiencing setbacks on the Ukrainian front, Russian President Vladimir Putin ordered a partial mobilization. Russian men who are eligible for enlistment have turned to illegal channels that grant them fabricated exemptions, whereas those fleeing the country to neighboring regions have turned to using identity masking tools.

Due to the aforesaid circumstance, it is now highly profitable for people to sell illegal services. In a similar vein, scammers and hackers see a good opportunity to take advantage of anxious people in haste.

Cybercriminals selling fake documents on the dark web, Telegram, and other encrypted channels are the initial scams to attempt to profit from the situation.

The scammers have even gone to the point of actively publicizing their phony services on social media and making direct contact with individuals through channels that preach about mobilization. The hackers allegedly offer people certificates of ineligibility for military duty, which they claim will enable them to avoid enlistment, according to a report by RIA Novosti.

For the recruitment officers to never hunt for the buyer, the agreement also calls for updating the regional enlistment office's database within 48 hours. The scammers demand 27,000 rubles ($470) in exchange for the same, as well as a copy of the client's passport.

Once the funds are paid, the con artists cut off contact with the victim and probably utilize the identity they have stolen to commit more fraud or sell it on the dark web. These advertisements claim to be able to produce fake HIV and hepatitis certificates for 33,000 and 38,000 rubles ($630), respectively.

According to Russian news site Kommersant, there is a 50% increase in demand for so-called 'gray' SIM cards as a result of the widespread migration of Russians. These SIM cards support 'pay-as-you-use' plans and thus are compatible with the networks of MTS, MegaFon, Beeline, Tele2, and Yota. Since the government can use regular SIMs to trace young men liable for military duty and potentially halt them at the border, Russians are eagerly looking for these cards.

IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity), is a special 15-digit number that is connected to the device's hardware instead of the SIM card. Roskomsvoboda, a Russian internet rights group, says there have been numerous cases of people being forced by FSB officers to divulge their IMEI numbers while entering Georgia, Kazakhstan, and Finland. IMEI monitoring is aided by using telecommunication stations for approximate location triangulation. 

Law enforcement has used IMEI for several years, and tracking software that promises to find your lost or stolen device also employs it. Except for a few Huawei, Xiaomi, and ZTE models that store the IMEI in a rewritable memory region in violation of the technology's rules and allow users to flash it with specific tools, assigned IMEIs are not interchangeable or editable.

As an alternative, Roskomvoboda advises evacuating Russians to either submit a burner phone at the border or purchase a new device once they have left the nation.


US Forex Scam Lasted for Ten Years

Two US men, Patrick Gallagher, 44, of Middleborough, Massachusetts, and Michael Dion, 49, of Orlando, Florida, both pled guilty to one charge of conspiracy to commit financial crimes in a foreign exchange operation that spanned a decade. 

Forex: Is it a con?

The world's currencies are traded on the Forex market, a credible platform.  It would be tricky to trade the currencies required to pay for imports, sell exports, travel, or conduct cross-border business without the Forex market. However, because there is no centralized or regulated exchange and massive leverage positions (which theoretically have the potential to earn traders a lot of money), are available, con artists use the scenario and rookie traders' desire to join the market. 

Since the forex market is a 'zero-sum' market, in order for one trader to profit, another dealer must lose money. As a result, the forex market does not by itself increase market value. 

About the Scam  

According to the Department of Justice, hackers established a fake organization called Global Forex Management and lured investors by assuring them large profits based on falsified trading performances from the past.

Hackers alleged that IB Capital, the business of a conspirator, would use an online trading platform to trade the victims' money. Rather, Gallagher and Dion were stealing the money from the victim investors while collaborating with other criminals in the Netherlands.

Gallagher and Dion carried out their scheme in May 2012 by deliberately setting up negative trades for the investors, effectively stealing $30 million from their victims.

After fabricating the enormous trading loss, Gallagher and Dion used shell businesses they had built up all across the world to transfer the stolen funds.

How can we detect a forex scam?

Learning how to correctly trade on the Forex market is the single most crucial thing a person can do to avoid getting conned. Finding reliable Forex brokers, on the other hand, is a challenge in this situation. Before trading with real money, practice making long-term profits on demo accounts. Be aware that it can take years to thoroughly learn the Forex trade, just like it does with any professional ability. Avoid any claim that suggests 'you can generate money quickly.'

Furthermore, don't accept the assertions made at face value; instead, take the time to conduct your own investigation. The legitimacy of the business that makes the claims or offers the course or expertise is something else a person might wish to investigate. 

PyPI Alerts of First-ever Phishing Campaign Against its Users

 

The Python Package Index, PyPI, issued a warning this week about an ongoing phishing campaign aimed at stealing developer credentials and injecting malicious updates into the repository's packages.

“Today we received reports of a phishing campaign targeting PyPI users. This is the first known phishing attack against PyPI.” states the warning.

The phishing messages are intended to trick recipients into clicking a link in order to comply with a new Google mandatory validation process for all packages. Recipients are urged to complete the validation process by September to avoid having their packages removed from PyPI.

When users click the link, they are taken to a Google Sites landing page that looks similar to PyPI's login page. After obtaining the user account credentials, the attackers were able to push malicious updates to legitimate packages.

“The phishing attempt and the malicious packages are linked by the domain linkedopports[.]com, which appears in the malicious package code and also functions as the location to which the phishing site tries to send the stolen credentials.” reads the analysis published by Checkmarx.

This campaign's malicious packages attempt to download and execute a file from the URL hxxps:/python-release[.]com/python-install.scr. The packages had a low detection rate at the time of discovery; the malicious code is digitally signed and unusually large (63MB) in an attempt to evade AV detection).

The researchers also discovered another domain associated with this attacker's infrastructure, "ledgdown[.]com," which was registered under the same IP address. This domain masquerades as the official website of the cryptocurrency assets app "ledger live."
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“This is another step in the attacks against open source packages and open source contributors.” concludes the post. “We recommend checking your network traffic against the IOCs listed below and as always, encouraging contributors to use 2FA.”

PyPI announced that it is revising its eligibility requirements for the hardware security key programme in the aftermath of the phishing attack. Any maintainer of a critical project, regardless of whether they already have TOTP-based 2FA enabled, it said.

Binance Executive: Scammers Created a 'Deep Fake Hologram' of him to Fool Victims

 

According to a Binance public relations executive, fraudsters created a deep-fake "AI hologram" of him to scam cryptocurrency projects via Zoom video calls.

Patrick Hillmann, chief communications officer at the crypto hypermart, stated he received messages from project teams thanking him for meeting with them virtually to discuss listing their digital assets on Binance over the past month. This raised some suspicions because Hillmann isn't involved in the exchange's listings and doesn't know the people messaging him.

"It turns out that a sophisticated hacking team used previous news interviews and TV appearances over the years to create a 'deep fake' of me," Hillmann said. "Other than the 15 pounds that I gained during COVID being noticeably absent, this deep fake was refined enough to fool several highly intelligent crypto community members."

Hillmann included a screenshot of a project manager asking him to confirm that he was, in fact, on a Zoom call in his write-up this week. The hologram is the latest example of cybercriminals impersonating Binance employees and executives on Twitter, LinkedIn, and other social media platforms.

Scams abound in the cryptocurrency world.
Despite highlighting a wealth of security experts and systems at Binance, Hillman insisted that users must be the first line of defence against scammers. He wrote that they can do so by being vigilant, using the Binance Verify tool, and reporting anything suspicious to Binance support.

“I was not prepared for the onslaught of cyberattacks, phishing attacks, and scams that regularly target the crypto community. Now I understand why Binance goes to the lengths it does,” he added.

The only proof Hillman provided was a screenshot of a chat with someone asking him to confirm a Zoom call they previously had. Hillman responds: “That was not me,” before the unidentified person posts a link to somebody’s LinkedIn profile, telling Hillman “This person sent me a Zoom link then your hologram was in the zoom, please report the scam”.

The fight against deepfakes
Deepfakes are becoming more common in the age of misinformation and artificial intelligence, as technological advancements make convincing digital impersonations of people online more viable.

They are sometimes highly realistic fabrications that have sparked global outrage, particularly when used in a political context. A deepfake video of Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy was posted online in March of this year, with the digital impersonation of the leader telling citizens to surrender to Russia.

On Twitter, one version of the deepfake was viewed over 120,000 times. In its fight against disinformation, the European Union has targeted deepfakes, recently requiring tech companies such as Google, Facebook, and Twitter to take countermeasures or face heavy fines.

Researchers: AiTM Attack are Targeting Google G-Suite Enterprise Users

 

A large-scale adversary-in-the-middle (AiTM) phishing campaign targeting enterprise users of Microsoft email services has also targeted Google Workspace users. 

"This campaign specifically targeted chief executives and other senior members of various organizations which use [Google Workspace]," Zscaler researchers Sudeep Singh and Jagadeeswar Ramanukolanu detailed in a report published this month.

The AiTM phishing attacks are said to have begun in mid-July 2022, using a similar method to a social engineering campaign designed to steal users' Microsoft credentials and even circumvent multi-factor authentication. 

The low-volume Gmail AiTM phishing campaign also includes the use of compromised emails from CEOs to conduct additional social engineering, with the attacks also utilizing several compromised domains as an intermediate URL redirector to take victims to the final landing page.

Attack chains entail sending password expiry emails to potential targets that encompass an embedded malicious link to supposedly "extend your access," tapping which takes the recipient to Google Ads and Snapchat redirect pages that load the phishing page URL.

Aside from open redirect abuse, a second variant of the attacks uses infected sites to host a Base64-encoded version of the next-stage redirector in the URL, as well as the victim's email address. This intermediate redirector is a piece of JavaScript code that directs you to a Gmail phishing page.

In one case, the redirector page used in the Microsoft AiTM phishing attack on July 11, 2022, was revised to take the user to a Gmail AiTM phishing page, connecting the two campaigns.

"There was also an overlap of infrastructure, and we even identified several cases in which the threat actor switched from Microsoft AiTM phishing to Gmail phishing using the same infrastructure," the researchers said.

Overall, the findings suggest that multi-factor authentication safeguards alone are insufficient to defend against advanced phishing attacks, necessitating that users scrutinize URLs before entering credentials and avoid opening attachments or clicking on links in emails sent from untrusted or unknown sources.

Global Scam Operation "Classiscam" Expanded to Singapore

 

Classiscam, a sophisticated scam-as-a-service business, has now entered Singapore, after more than 1.5 years  migrating to Europe. 

"Scammers posing as legitimate buyers approach sellers with the request to purchase goods from their listings and the ultimate aim of stealing payment data," Group-IB said in a report shared with The Hacker News. 

The operators were described as a "well-coordinated and technologically advanced scammer criminal network" by the cybersecurity firm. Classiscam is a Russia-based cybercrime operation that was originally detected in the summer of 2019 but only came to light a year later, coinciding with an uptick in activity due to an increase in online buying following the COVID-19 epidemic. 

Classiscam, the pandemic's most commonly utilised fraud scheme, targets consumers who use marketplaces and services related to property rentals, hotel bookings, online bank transfers, online retail, ride-sharing, and package deliveries. Users of major Russian ads and marketplaces were initially targeted, before spreading to Europe and the United States. 

Over 90 active organisations are said to be utilising Classiscam's services to target consumers in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, France, Kazakhstan, Kirghizia, Poland, Romania, Ukraine, the United States, and Uzbekistan. The fraudulent operation spans 64 countries in Europe, the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), and the Middle East, and employs 169 brands to carry out the assaults. Criminals using Classiscam are reported to have gained at least $29.5 million in unlawful earnings between April 2020 and February 2022. 

This campaign is remarkable for its dependence on Telegram bots and conversations to coordinate activities and generate phishing and scam pages. Here's how it all works: Scammers put bait advertising on famous marketplaces and classified websites, frequently promising game consoles, laptops, and cellphones at steep prices. When a potential victim contacts the seller (i.e., the threat actor) via the online storefront, the Classiscam operator dupes the target into continuing the conversation on a third-party messaging service like WhatsApp or Viber before sending a link to a rogue payment page to complete the transaction. 

The concept includes a hierarchy of administrators, workers, and callers. While administrators are in charge of recruiting new members, automating the building of scam pages, and registering new accounts, it is the employees that make accounts on free classifieds websites and submit the false advertising. 

"Workers are key participants of the Classiscam scam scheme: their goal is to attract traffic to phishing resources," the researchers said. 

In turn, the phishing URLs are produced by Telegram bots that replicate the payment pages of local classified websites but are housed on lookalike domains. This necessitates the workers to submit the URL containing the bait product to the bot. 

"After initial contact with the legitimate seller, the scammers generate a unique phishing link that confuses the sellers by displaying the information about the seller's offer and imitating the official classified's website and URL," the researchers said. 

"Scammers claim that payment has been made and lure the victim into either making a payment for delivery or collecting the payment." 

The phishing pages also offer the option of checking the victim's bank account balance in order to find the most "valuable" cards. Furthermore, some cases involve a second attempt to deceive the victims by phoning them and requesting a refund in order to collect their money back. 

These calls are made by assistant employees posing as platform tech support professionals.  In this scenario, the targets are sent to a fraudulent payment page where they must input their credit card information and confirm it with an SMS passcode. Instead of a refund, the victim's card is charged the same amount again.

While the aforementioned method is an example of seller scam, in which a buyer (i.e., victim) receives a phishing payment link and is cheated of their money, buyer scams also exist.

A fraudster contacts a legal vendor as a client and sends a bot-generated fraudulent payment form imitating a marketplace, ostensibly for verification purposes. However, after the seller inputs their bank card details, an amount equal to the cost of the goods is debited from their account.

Classiscammers' complete attack infrastructure consists of 200 domains, 18 of which were constructed to deceive visitors of an undisclosed Singaporean classified website. Other sites in the network masquerade as Singaporean movers, European, Asian, and Middle Eastern classified websites, banks, markets, food and cryptocurrency businesses, and delivery services.

"As it sounds, Classiscam is far more complex to tackle than the conventional types of scams," Group-IB's Ilia Rozhnov siad. "Unlike the conventional scams, Classiscam is fully automated and could be widely distributed. Scammers could create an inexhaustible list of links on the fly."

"To complicate the detection and takedown, the home page of the rogue domains always redirects to the official website of a local classified platform."

Social Media Used to Target Victims of Investment Scams

Security researchers have discovered a huge investment scam effort that uses online and telephone channels to target victims across Europe. Since fake investment scams have been around for a while, people are familiar with them.

Over 10,000 malicious websites tailored for consumers in the UK, Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, Poland, Portugal, Norway, Sweden, and the Czech Republic are included in the "gigantic network infrastructure" spotted by Group-IB.

The scammers work hard to promote the campaigns on numerous social media sites, or even compromise Facebook and YouTube to get in front of as many users as they can.

The firm's aim is to mislead consumers into believing they have the chance to invest in high-yield chances and persuade them to deposit a minimum of 250 EUR ($255) to join up for the phony services.

Scam operation

  • Posts promoting phony investment schemes on hacked social media accounts, such as Facebook and YouTube, are the first to entice victims.
  • Images of regional or international celebrities are frequently used to give the illusion that the scam is real.
  • The scammers then demand contact information. In a sophisticated social engineering scam, a 'customer agent' from a call center contacts the victim and offers the investment terms and conditions.
  • Eventually, the victim is persuaded to make a deposit of at least 250 EUR, and the information they provided on the false website is either saved and utilized in other attacks or sold on the dark web.
  • After the victim deposits the money, they are given access to a fictitious investment dashboard that claims to allow them to monitor daily earnings.
  • When the victim tries to use the site to withdraw funds but is first asked for final payment, the fraud is discovered.

Over 5000 of the 11,197 domains used in the campaign were still operational as of this writing.

It is advisable to check that an investment platform is from a reputable broker when it interests you. It may also be possible to spot the fraud by searching for user evaluations and looking for patterns in a large number of comments. 


Alert! This Huge Network of 11,000 Fake Investment Sites Targets Europe

 

Researchers discovered a massive network of over 11,000 domains used to market several bogus investment schemes to European users. 
To establish an air of credibility and attract a wider number of victims, the platforms display false evidence of affluence and falsified celebrity endorsements. The operation's purpose is to dupe people into believing they have a chance for high-return investments and persuade them to spend a minimum of 250 EUR ($255) to sign up for the bogus services. 

Group-IB researchers found the operation and documented the vast network of phishing sites, content hosting, and redirections. More than 5,000 of the discovered malicious domains are still operational, according to Group-IB. At the moment, the countries targeted by this initiative are the United Kingdom, Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands, Portugal, Poland, Norway, Sweden, and the Czech Republic. 

Scamming Process 

To reach as many users as possible, the fraudsters promote the ads on multiple social media platforms or utilise hacked Facebook and YouTube. Victims who fall for the scam and click on the advertisements to learn more are sent to landing pages with supposed success stories. 

The crooks then ask for contact information. In an extensive social engineering scam, a "customer agent" from a call centre contacts the victim and offers the investment terms and conditions. Eventually, the victim is persuaded to deposit at least 250 EUR, while the information given on the false site is saved and utilised in future operations or purchased on the dark web. 

After depositing the cash, the victim gains access to a bogus investment dashboard that supposedly lets them track daily gains. After depositing the cash, the victim obtains access to a bogus investment dashboard that purports to show daily returns. This is done to maintain the idea of a legitimate investment and attract victims to deposit more money in exchange for higher earnings. 

The fraud is uncovered when the victim attempts to withdraw money from the site without first requesting final payment. Group-IB researchers talked with the fraudsters and taped their chat with the operator during the inquiry. Parts of this audio have been muted for privacy concerns. 

Investments are never risk-free, thus promises of assured profits should be seen as warning flags. Furthermore, genuine investing platforms do not provide personal account managers for modest deposits.

Facebook Ads Push Android Adware, Installed 7M Times on Google Play Store

 

Several adware programmes marketed aggressively on Facebook as system cleansers and optimizers for Android devices have accumulated millions of downloads from the Google Play store. 

The applications lack all of the advertised functionality and push adverts while attempting to stay on the device for as long as possible. To avoid deletion, the applications regularly change their icons and names, posing as Settings or the Play Store itself. 

Adware applications make use of the Android component Contact Provider, which allows them to transport data between the device and web services. Because the subsystem is contacted whenever a new programme is installed, the adware might exploit it to start the ad-serving process. It may appear to the user that the advertising is being pushed by the legitimate app they installed. 

McAfee researchers found the adware applications. They point out that customers do not need to activate them after installation to see the advertising because the adware runs automatically without user intervention. The first thing these intrusive apps do is set up a permanent service for displaying adverts. If the process is "killed" (terminated), it instantly restarts. 

This video demonstrates how the adware's name and icon change automatically and how ad-serving occurs without user intervention. 

According to McAfee's analysis, consumers are persuaded to believe the adware applications because they see a Play Store link on Facebook, leaving little room for uncertainty. As a result, exceptionally high download counts for the specific type of apps have emerged, as shown below:
  • Junk Cleaner, cn.junk.clean.plp, 1M+ downloads
  • EasyCleaner, com.easy.clean.ipz, 100K+ downloads
  • Power Doctor, com.power.doctor.mnb, 500K+ downloads
  • Super Clean, com.super.clean.zaz, 500K+ downloads
  • Full Clean -Clean Cache, org.stemp.fll.clean, 1M+ downloads
  • Fingertip Cleaner, com.fingertip.clean.cvb, 500K+ downloads
  • Quick Cleaner, org.qck.cle.oyo, 1M+ downloads
  • Keep Clean, org.clean.sys.lunch, 1M+ downloads
  • Windy Clean, in.phone.clean.www, 500K+ downloads
  • Carpet Clean, og.crp.cln.zda, 100K+ downloads
  • Cool Clean, syn.clean.cool.zbc, 500K+ downloads
  • Strong Clean, in.memory.sys.clean, 500K+ downloads
  • Meteor Clean, org.ssl.wind.clean, 100K+ downloads
The majority of impacted users are from South Korea, Japan, and Brazil, however, the adware has regrettably spread globally. The adware applications have been removed from the Google Play Store. Users who installed them, on the other hand, must manually delete them from the device.

Despite their limited advantages, system cleansers and optimizers are popular software categories. Cybercriminals know that many people would attempt such methods to extend the life of their gadgets, thus they disguise dangerous software as such.