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JuiceLedger Attacker Linked to Phishing Attacks Targeting PyPI Users


Threat analysts at SentinelOne and Checkmarx have unearthed the hacker behind the recently launched phishing attacks targeting Python Package Index (PyPI) users. 

Earlier this week on Thursday, researchers disclosed that the supply chain attacks were part of a larger campaign aimed at spreading the JuiceStealer credential-stealing malware since late last year. 

Initially, JuiceStealer was deployed via a methodology called typosquatting, in which the hacker tracked as JuiceLedger injected PyPI with hundreds of packages that nearly impersonated the names of popular ones, in the hopes that some users would fall into a trap and install them. 

The malware was identified on VirusTotal in February when the hacker submitted a Python app that secretly installed the malware. JuiceStealer is developed using the .Net programming framework to steal sensitive data from victims’ browsers. Based on the data extracted from the code, the researchers have linked the malware to activity that started in late 2021 and has evolved rapidly since then. One likely connection is to Nowblox, a fraud site that claimed to offer free Robux, the online currency for the game Roblox. 

Recently, the hacker started employing crypto-themed fake apps such as the Tesla Trading bot, which was deployed in zip files accompanying additional legitimate software. 

"JuiceLedger appears to have evolved very quickly from opportunistic, small-scale infections only a few months ago to conducting a supply chain attack on a major software distributor," the researchers wrote in a post. "The escalation in complexity in the attack on PyPI contributors, involving a targeted phishing campaign, hundreds of typosquatting packages, and account takeovers of trusted developers, indicates that the threat actor has time and resources at their disposal." 

With account takeover attacks becoming a popular technique for hackers looking to exploit software supply chains, PyPI has started imposing a mandatory two-factor authentication (2FA) requirement for projects deemed "critical." People downloading packages from PyPI—or any other open-source repository—should remain vigilant to ensure the software they're downloading is authentic. 

PyPI is by far not the sole code repository that threat actors have exploited recently. Security vendors have reported multiple identical attack incidents involving other widely employed registries such as npm and Maven Central. 

“Given the widespread use of PyPI and other open source packages in enterprise environments, attacks such as these are a cause of concern, and security teams are urged to review the provided indicators and take appropriate mitigation measures,” researchers added.

Python Libraries Hacked AWS Data and Keys  


Sonatype researchers have found malicious Python packages that post your AWS credentials and user characteristics to a publicly accessible endpoint rather than just exploiting sensitive data. Some malicious packages with the Sonatypes are as follows:
  • loglib-modules — seems targeted at coders who are familiar with the authentic "loglib library."
  • pyg-modules — seems aimed at coders who are familiar with the basic "pyg" library.
  • Pygrata:Unknown target, pygrata-utils contains identically noxious code to that found in "loglib-modules." 
  • hkg-sol-utils: Unknown goal 

The anti-ransomware detection technology provided by Sonatype as part of Nexus platform products, such as Nexus Firewall, found these packages. Researchers found these packages to be harmful after further analysis, thus, out of precaution, they reported this to the PyPI security team, so these packages were withdrawn. "This kind of package either has code that reads and phishes your secrets or employs a dependency that does it”, according to an analysis by   Sonatype security researchers Jorge Cardona and Carlos Fernández. 

For instance, the malicious software in the packages "loglib-modules" and "pygrata-utils" enables the programs to gather AWS credentials, network interface data, and environment variables and ship them to a remote location. IAM role details for an EC2 cloud instance are reported to be returned using the URL 'hxxp:/169.254.169[.]254/latest/meta-data/iam/security-credentials/'. 

Unsettlingly, there are hundreds of endpoints holding this data. Since TXT files were not encrypted by any security measures, anyone with access to the internet could essentially access these credentials. It's vital to know that packages like "pygrata" depend on one of the two aforementioned modules rather than containing the code themselves. It is still unknown who the malicious actors are and what propels them. 
Users of Nexus Firewall are shielded 

If the stolen credentials posted online on purpose or as a result of bad opsec procedures? There isn't enough information available right now to rule out the possibility that this action is suspect, even if it is valid security testing as per researchers. This finding comes after the report last week of several malicious vendors, including the npm package "flame-vali," which repeatedly tried to disable Windows Defender before releasing a trojan.

The software supply chain will be safeguarded from the start thanks to Nexus Firewall instances that immediately quarantine any suspect components found by automated malware detection systems while a subjective evaluation by a researcher is being prepared.

Info Stealer Identified in a PyPI Package


GitHub user duxinglin1 has identified three PyPI packages 'keep,' 'pyanxdns,' and 'api-res-py' using a malicious dependency, 'request,' 

Last month, duxinglin1 uncovered the vulnerable versions containing the misspelled 'request' dependency, rather than the authentic 'requests' library. CVEs assigned to the susceptible versions include: 

• CVE-2022-30877 - 'keep' version 1.2 contains the backdoor 'request', 
• CVE-2022-30882 - 'pyanxdns' version 0.2 impacted 
• CVE-2022-31313 - 'api-res-py' version 0.1 impacted 

According to duxinglin1, the risk with the ‘Keep’ package is pretty high as it particularly receives over 8,000 downloads per week on average, while it is quite opposite with 'pyanxdns' and 'api-res-py' as they are small-scale projects. 

Two years back in 2020, Tencent Onion Anti-Intrusion System unearthed a malicious typosquat 'request' uploaded to the PyPI registry which copied the requests HTTP library but surprisingly dropped malicious info-stealers. 

"We found a malicious backdoor in version 1.2 of this project, and its malicious backdoor is the request package. Even if the request package was removed by PyPI, many mirror sites did not completely delete this package, so it could still be installed,” duxinglin1 explained. The malicious backdoor inside the counterfeit 'request' includes a base64-encoded URL to the ''. 

The file '' is loaded with a Remote Access Trojan (RAT), while 'x.pyx' contains data theft malware that exfiltrates cookies and private data from web browsers like Chrome, Firefox, Yandex, Brave, and others. Subsequently, the hackers with access to user credentials attempt to exploit other accounts employed by the developer, potentially leading to additional supply-chain attacks. 

When Bleeping Computer contacted the developers of each of these packages to identify whether this was due to a simple typographical error, or hijacking of maintainer accounts. The author of 'pyanxdns', Marky Egebäck, confirmed this was a result of a typographical error rather than an account compromise. 

Additionally, it appears that the developers of the other two packages also introduced 'request' rather than the legitimate 'requests' due to an innocent typing error. 

"Sorry to say by a simple typo in the file since git history shows that this was added when the install requires was added by me. This was [an] honest mistake based on a typo in the I generally don’t publish things on PyPI but I made this quickly for a friend and myself. Not sure if he has promoted this but the purpose was mainly for personal use in [an] internal docker project," stated Egebäck.

11 Malicious Python Packages Uncovered by Researchers


Researchers have found 11 malicious Python packages which have been installed more than 41,000 times from the Python Package Index (PyPI) repository that might be used to obtain Discord access tokens, passwords, and even stage dependency misunderstanding attacks. 

These Python packages have now been withdrawn from the repository as a result of JFrog's responsible disclosure —
  • important package / important-package 
  • pptest 
  • ipboards 
  • owlmoon 
  • DiscordSafety 
  • \trrfab 
  • 10Cent10 / 10Cent11 
  • yandex-yt 
  • yiffparty 

Two of the programs ("importantpackage," "10Cent10," and their variants) were discovered to gain a reverse shell upon that compromised system, granting the attacker total control over an affected system. Using a technique known as dependency confusion or namespace confusion, two additional packages, "ipboards" as well as "trrfab" masqueraded as valid dependencies intended to be immediately imported. 

Apart from typosquatting attacks, in which a threat actor purposefully discloses packages with misspelled names of popular variants, dependency confusion works by posting poisoned elements with the same names as valid internal private packages, although with a higher version as well as posted online to public repositories, basically forcing the target's package manager to download and install the nefarious module. 

The dependency "importantpackage" is particularly notable for its new network-based detection technique, which involves exploiting Fastly's the content delivery network (CDN) to disguise connections with the attacker-controlled server as interactions with pypi[.]org. 

The malicious code "causes an HTTPS request to be sent to pypi.python[.]org (which is indistinguishable from a legitimate request to PyPI), which later gets rerouted by the CDN as an HTTP request to the [command-and-control] server," JFrog researchers Andrey Polkovnychenko and Shachar Menashe noted. 

Eventually, both "ipboards" and a fifth package known as "pptest" were revealed to use DNS tunneling as a data exfiltration technique, depending on DNS requests as a means of communicating between both the victim PC and the remote server. According to JFrog, this is the first time the approach has been discovered in malware posted to PyPI. 

Targeting prominent code registries such as Node Package Manager (NPM) JavaScript registry, PyPI, and RubyGems has become routine, opening up a new arena for a variety of assaults. 

"Package managers are a growing and powerful vector for the unintentional installation of malicious code, and […] attackers are getting more sophisticated in their approach," said Menashe, JFrog's senior director of research. "The advanced evasion techniques used in these malware packages, such as novel exfiltration or even DNS tunneling signal a disturbing trend that attackers are becoming stealthier in their attacks on open-source software."

‘mitmproxy2’ Removed by PyPI due to Code Execution Issues


A Python package called 'mitmproxy2' was pulled off from the PyPI repository because it was a replica of the official "mitmproxy" library, though with an "artificially introduced" code execution flaw. 

The official Python library 'mitmproxy' is a free and open-source engaging HTTPS proxy that gets over 40,000 weekly downloads. 

Mitmproxy is an open-source proxy program that uses a man-in-the-middle technique to monitor HTTP and HTTPS connections between any HTTP(S) client (such as a mobile or desktop browser) and a web server (MITM).

Maximilian Hils, one of the developers of the 'mitmproxy' Python library, brought everyone else's attention to a fake'mitmproxy2' package submitted to PyPI, on the 11th of October. "mitmproxy2" is near "the same as regular mitmproxy, but with an artificial RCE vulnerability included." 

As Hils told Bleeping Computer, his biggest worry is that certain software developers would misunderstand 'mitmproxy2' for a newer version of 'mitmproxy,' resulting in vulnerable code being accidentally included in their products. Whilst investigating an unconnected PyPI warehouse problem, Hils came across this imitation package via "happy little accident". 

"When you run mitmproxy's web interface, we expose an HTTP API for that. If you remove all safeguards from that API, everyone on the same network can execute code on your machine with a single HTTP request," Hils told Bleeping Computer in an email interview. 

It's also unclear if the person who released the copycat 'mitmproxy2' software did the same with malevolent purposes or just because of poor coding techniques. It would have been much easier to just put some harmful code that is immediately executed upon installation. 

However, the issue is that if one uploads it to PyPI as 'mitmproxy2' with a version number that says it's newer/superseded, users will undoubtedly download it without realizing the changes. 

While investigating 'mitmproxy2,' BleepingComputer noticed that a new package called 'mitmproxy-iframe' had also arrived on the PyPI repository less than a day after 'mitmproxy2' was deleted. 

Since anyone can upload packages to open-source ecosystems, cybersecurity threats and attacks such as virus injection, typosquatting, brandjacking, and dependency misunderstanding have increased significantly in recent years. 

Such "whack-a-mole" problems will always repeat themselves unless actual validations are implemented by open-source registries.

Malevolent PyPI Packages Detected Filching Developer Data


Repositories of software packages have become a frequent target for supply chain attacks. Reports concerning malware attacks on prominent repository systems like npm, PyPI, and RubyGems have been recently surfacing. Programmers completely trust repositories and install packages from such sources, provided that they are trustworthy. 

Malware packages may be posted to the package repository, permitting malicious actors to leverage repository systems to propagate viruses and start successful attacks both on developers and CI/CD machines in the pipeline. 

Eight Python packages that have been installed more than 30,000 times have been deleted from the PyPI portal with malicious code, demonstrating again how software package repositories have developed into a hub for a popular supply chain attack. 

The dearth of moderation and automated security safeguards in public software repositories enables relatively unfamiliar attackers, through typosquatting, dependency misunderstanding, or basic social engineering attempts, to utilize them as a base to disseminate malware. 

PyPI is Python's primary third-party software repository, which has package manager utilities, such as pip, as its default package and dependency source. 

Several of the packages could have been used for more complex threats, allowing the attacker to implement remote code on the target device, collect network data, plunder credit card details, and autosaved passwords in browsers like Chrome and Edge, and sometimes even steal Discord authentication tokens to impersonate the victim. 

PyPI is not alone in software package repositories that appear as a potential attack surface to invasions, with rogue packages identified in npm and RubyGems that might potentially damage a complete system or be a useful jump-off point to deepen the network of a victim. 

"The continued discovery of malicious software packages in popular repositories like PyPI is an alarming trend that can lead to widespread supply chain attacks," said JFrog CTO Asaf Karas. "The ability for attackers to use simple obfuscation techniques to introduce malware means developers have to be concerned and vigilant. This is a systemic threat, and it needs to be actively addressed on several layers, both by the maintainers of software repositories and by the developers." 

Mostly on the programmers' side, precautionary action must form an important part of any CI/CD pipeline, including the confirmation of the signature in the library and the use of automated security instruments that analyze problematic code suggestions included inside the project. Automated tools like these may warn users about the use of harmful code.

Python Package Index Repository Detected With Multiple Malicious Packages


In the PyPI repository for Python projects that transformed workstations developers into crypto mining machines, many malicious packaging were captured this week. 

All malicious packages were uploaded on the very same account and the developers tried to install them by using the wrong names for the genuine Python projects, thousands of times. The Python Package Index is the official third-party 

Python software repository is stylized as PyPI and is also referred to as the Cheese Shop. It's the same as CPAN, Perl's repository. Some package managers, notably pip, use PyPI for packages as the default source. 

In April, a total of six harmful packages were infiltrated with the Python Package Index (PyPI) - maratlib, maratlib1, matplatlib-plus, mllearnlib, mplatlib, learning lab. Everything comes from "nedog123" and also most names are misspelled versions of the genuine plot program matplotlib. The "maratlib" packet was evaluated by Ax Sharma, a security researcher at Sonatype, in a blog post. He said the packages were utilized for other malicious components to make them dependent. 

The researcher writes, “For each of these packages, the malicious code is contained in the file which is a build script that runs during a package’s installation.” Sharma determined that it was attempting to download a Bash script ( from a non-existent GitHub repository during the analyses. 

The author's aliases were tracked by Sharma on GitHub using open-source intelligence and learned that the script's job was to operate an "Ubqminer" crypto miner on the compromised machine. 

The researcher also observes that the creator of malware altered the standard Kryptex wallet address with his own to mine for Ubiq cryptocurrency (UBQ). The script has another crypto mining program in a separate version, the open-source T-Rex that uses GPU power. 

Attackers routinely target open-source code repositories such as PyPI [1, 2, 3], NPM for NodeJS [1, 2, 3], or RubyGems. Although the detection is minimal when there is are low downloads, as usual, there is a major risk that developers would incorporate the malicious code occasionally utilized in applications.

PyPI and GitLab Witness Spam Attacks


The GitLab, a source code hosting website, and the Python Package Index (PyPI) portal both are flooded with advertisements for shady websites and assorted services by the spammers. However, both the attacks have no links to each other. 

The PyPI attack in which it is flooded with more than 10,000 listings is the biggest of the two attacks. The Python Package Index (PyPI) is a Python programming language software repository. PyPI allows the user to search and install Python community applications. To deliver their applications, package developers use PyPI. It also hosts tens of thousands of Python libraries. The fact that anybody can create entries in PyPI's website for Python Libraries, which were essentially used as massive SEO advertising for various shady pages, lately has been misused by the spammers. 

These pages typically featured a broth of search-engine-friendly keywords for different topics that varied from games to pornography and films to presents, and a compressed link at the bottom, mostly pointing to a platform attempting to receive data from the payments card. Though the PyPI team has accepted and affirmed that they are aware of the SEO spam flood. "Our admins are working to address the spam," stated Ewa Jodlowska, Executive Director of the Python Software Foundation. She further added, "By the nature of, anyone can publish to it, so it is relatively common." 

Although the PyPI spam attack seems to have been going on for at least a month, another new attack has been found at GitLab, a website that allows developers and companies to host and sync the work on source code repositories. A danger that is still unidentified seems to spam the Issues Tracker for thousands of GitLab ventures that each prompted an e-mail to account owners with spam contents. Similar to PyPI spam, these comments have diverted users to shady websites. 

Certainly, GitLab was not prepared for any such attack since the e-mail infrastructure had slackened, interrupted, and queued legit e-mails according to an incident status report published by the company. They said, “We confirmed that mail latency was caused by a user’s spam attack. Mitigation is in progress, as we drain the offending job processing queues.” 

Spamming source code repository seems to be a new strategy for spamming communities, who have generically targeted their comments of shady links on websites, forums, and news portals in recent years. Although spam isn't an attractive attack vector, many businesses frequently struggle to protect servers, web applications and subdomains and often end up exploiting these services to host or actually participate in spam attacks.