Search This Blog

Showing posts with label Memory Cards. Show all posts

For Three Years, the Flaws in Wyze Cam Devices Have Gone Unpatched


Several vulnerabilities have been uncovered in popular Wyze Cam devices, as per new research from cybersecurity firm Bitdefender. The vulnerabilities have been enabling threat actors unlimited access to video feeds and SD cards stored on local memory cards, and have been unfixed for nearly three years.

Wyze was told by Bitdefender it planned to expose the vulnerabilities in September 2021, and on January 29, 2022, the team released a firmware update to fix the SD card issue. Remote users may acquire the contents of the SD card in the camera via a website operating on port 80 without requiring authentication, as per flaw. 

  • CVE-2019-9564, a remote control execution problem caused by a stack-based buffer overflow provides threat actors complete control of a device, such as the ability to control its mobility, disable recording, turn on or off the camera, and more. 
  • Unauthenticated access to the contents of an SD card all affected Wyze Cam lines.
  • CVE-2019-9564 does not allow users to watch the live audio and video feed, but when paired with CVE-2019-12266, exploitation is "relatively straightforward". 

Once users insert an SD card into the Wyze Cam IoT, the webserver creates a symlink to it in the www directory, which is hosted by the webserver but has no access restrictions. The SD card usually includes video, photos, and audio recordings, but it can also contain other types of data manually saved on it. The device's log files, which include the UID (unique identifying number) and the ENR, are also stored on the SD card (AES encryption key). Such revelation could lead to unrestricted remote access to the device. 

Wyze Cam version 1 has been retired and will no longer get security updates, however Wyze Cam Black version 2 and Wyze Cam version 3 have been updated to address the flaws. Wyze published an upgrade for its Cam v2 devices on September 24, 2019, which fixed CVE-2019-9564. By November 9, 2020, Wyze had issued a fix for CVE-2019-12266. Although most Internet-connected devices are used with a "set and forget" mentality, most Wyze Cam owners may still be executing a vulnerable firmware version. 

The security updates are only for Wyze Cam v2 and v3, which were published in February 2018 and October 2020, in both, and not for Wyze Cam v1, which was released in August 2017. The older model were phased out in 2020, and because Wyze didn't solve the problem till then, such devices will be open to exploitation indefinitely. 

If you're using a Wyze device it's still being actively supported, be sure to install any available firmware upgrades, deactivate your IoTs when they're not in use, and create a separate, isolated network just for them.

Hackers are Selling Tool to Hide Malware in GPUs


Cybercriminals are moving towards malware attacks that can execute code from a hacked system's graphics processing unit (GPU). Although the approach is not new, and demo code has been published in the past, most of the projects to date have come from academics or were unfinished and unpolished. 

Recently in August, the proof-of-concept (PoC) was sold on a hacker forum, perhaps signaling hackers' shift to a new level of complexity in their attacks. 

Code Tested on Intel, AMD, and Nvidia GPUs

In a brief post on a hacking forum, someone offered to sell the proof-of-concept (PoC) for a strategy that keeps harmful code protected from security solutions scanning the system RAM. The seller gave a brief description of their technique, claiming that it stores malicious code in the GPU memory buffer and then executes it from there. 

As per the advertiser, the project only works on Windows PCs that support OpenCL 2.0 and above for executing code on various processors, including GPUs. It also stated that he tested the code on Intel (UHD 620/630), Radeon (RX 5700), and GeForce (GTX 740M(? ), GTX 1650) graphics cards. 

However, there are fewer details regarding this new hack, but the post went live on August 8 and was apparently sold for an unknown amount on August 25.

Another hacker forum user mentioned that GPU-based malware had been done before, citing JellyFish, a six-year proof-of-concept for a Linux-based GPU rootkit. 

The vendor dismissed the links to the JellyFish malware, stating that their approach is unique and does not rely on code mapping to userspace. There is no information regarding the transaction, such as who purchased it or how much they paid. Only the seller's article claims to have sold the malware to an unidentified third party. 

Academic Study

Researchers at the VX-Underground threat repository stated in a tweet on Sunday that the malicious code allows binary execution by the GPU in its memory region. They also noted that the technique will be demonstrated soon. 

PoCs for a GPU-based keylogger and a GPU-based remote access trojan for Windows were also disclosed by the same researchers that created the JellyFish rootkit. All three projects were released in May 2015 and are open to the public. 

While the mention of the JellyFish project implies that GPU-based malware is a new idea, the foundation for this attack approach was developed around eight years ago. 

Researchers from the Institute of Computer Science - Foundation for Research and Technology (FORTH) in Greece and Columbia University in New York demonstrated in 2013 that GPUs can execute a keylogger and save recorded keystrokes in their memory space [PDF document here]. 

The researchers previously evidenced that malware authors may use the GPU's processing capabilities to pack code with extremely sophisticated encryption methods considerably faster than the CPU.