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Kaspersky VPN Secure Connection Vulnerability Discovered

Kaspersky's VPN Secure Connection for Microsoft Windows has a local privilege-escalation (LPE) vulnerability that could allow an already-authenticated hacker to access administrative privileges and potentially seize total control of a victim's computer.

Researchers disagree over the bug's CVSS score, which is tracked as CVE-2022-27535. The bug has a high-severity CVSS score of 7.8 out of 10 as per a Synopsys alert published, but Kaspersky scores it as moderate with a 5.0 CVSS level.

In either case, it is present in the Support Tools section of the app and would enable root access to Server, the highest level possible in the Windows environment, allowing an authenticated hacker to delete any file at will from the system.

The Kaspersky team has fixed a flaw in the Kaspersky VPN Secure Connection that was exploited by an authorized hacker to trigger arbitrary file deletion on the host. It might result in device malfunction or the deletion of crucial system files necessary for proper system operation. 

An attacker needed to create a specific file and persuade customers to utilize the 'Delete all service data and reports' or 'Save report on your computer' product capabilities in order to carry out this attack.

Users should upgrade to version 21.6 or later to patch their systems because Kaspersky has solved the problem.


Bug Discovered in DrayTek Vigor Routers by Trellix

The widely used series of DrayTek Vigor routers for small businesses have been found to have a significant, pre-authenticated remote code execution (RCE) vulnerability. Researchers caution that if it is exploited, it may enable total device takeover as well as access to a larger network.

The DrayTek Vigor series of business routers has 29 variants that are vulnerable, according to threat detection company Trellix. Although other versions that share the same codebase are also affected, the problem was initially identified in a Vigor 3910 device.

In under 30 days from the time, it was discovered, the Taiwan-based maker delivered firmware patches to fix the flaw. 

The vulnerability CVE-2022-3254 could enable a remote, unauthenticated attacker to run arbitrary code and seize total control of a susceptible device. The hacker might get hold of breach private data, spy on network activity, or use the exploited router to run a botnet. Denial of service (DoS) conditions can result from unsuccessful exploitation efforts.

DrayTek Vigor devices benefited from the "work from home" trend during the pandemic to gain a reputation. Over 700,000 online devices were found in a Shodan search, with the majority being in the UK, Vietnam, Netherlands, and Australia. This is susceptible to attack without user input.

The vulnerability can be exploited without the need for user input or passwords thanks to the default device configuration, which allows for both LAN and internet access.

At least 200,000 of the discovered routers were determined by the researchers to expose the vulnerable service on the internet, making them easily exploitable without user input or any other specific requirements. The attack surface is reduced because many of the remaining 500,000 are considered vulnerable using one-click attacks, but only via LAN.

Although Trellix has not detected any evidence of this vulnerability being exploited in the wild, threat actors frequently employ DrayTek routers as a target for their hacks, therefore it's crucial that customers apply the patch as soon as they can.

There have been no indications of CVE-2022-32548, although as CISA recently highlighted, state-sponsored APTs from China and others frequently target SOHO routers.

Zero-day Exploitable Bug in Atlassian Confluence

 

Researchers are alerting the public that an important Atlassian Confluence vulnerability that was published last week is currently being aggressively exploited. 

Researchers claim that Confluence Server 7.18.0 is affected by the significant unauthorized, remote code execution vulnerability CVE-2022-26134, and they believe that both Confluence Server and Data Center versions 7.4.0 are at risk.

Atlassian advises clients to disable access to their servers using one of two methods because there are no updates available:
  • Preventing access to the internet for Confluence Server and Data Center instances.
  • Confluence Server and Data Center instances can be disabled.
The hard-coded details were published on Twitter after the real-world exploitation, which prompted the Australian software business to give it the top priority in its patching schedule.

It's important to remember that the flaw only manifests itself when the Questions for Confluence app is turned on. However, since the created account is not automatically deleted after the Questions for Confluence program has been uninstalled, doing so does not fix the problem.

Federal organizations must stop all internet access to Confluence servers by June 3. The Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) has added this zero-day to its 'Known Exploited Vulnerabilities Catalog' and ordered federal entities to comply.

The development also occurs in the wake of Palo Alto Networks' discovery that threat actors begin looking for weak endpoints within 15 minutes following the public announcement of a new security defect in its 2022 Unit 42 Incident Response Report.



Defective WordPress Plugin Permits Full Invasion

 

According to security researchers, a campaign scanning almost 1.6 million websites was made to take advantage of an arbitrary file upload vulnerability in a previously disclosed vulnerable WordPress plugin.

Identified as CVE-2021-24284, the vulnerability that affects Kaswara Modern WPBakery Page Builder Addons, when exploited, gives an unauthorized attacker access to sites using any version of the plugin and enables them to upload and delete files or instead gain complete control of the website.

Wordfence reported the vulnerability over three months ago, and in a new alert this week it warned that attackers are scaling up their attacks, which began on July 4 and are still active. The WordPress security provider claims to have halted 443,868 attacks on client websites per day and strives to do the same till date. Daily, on average, 443,868 tries are made.

Malicious code injection  

The hacker attempts to upload a spam ZIP payload that contains a PHP file using the plugin's 'uploadFontIcon' AJAX function by sending a POST request to 'wp-admin/admin-ajax/php'.

Afterward, this file pulls the NDSW trojan, which inserts code into the target sites' legitimate Javascript files to reroute users to dangerous websites including phishing and malware-dropping sites. You've likely been infected if any of your JavaScript files contain the string "; if(ndsw==" or if these files themselves contain the "; if(ndsw==" string.

All versions of the software are vulnerable to an attack because the bug was never patched by the software creators, and the plugin is currently closed. The bug hunters stated that although 1,599,852 different sites were hit, a bulk of them wasn't hosting the plugin, and they believed that between 4,000 and 8,000 sites still have the vulnerable plugin installed.

Blocking the attackers' IP addresses is advised even if you are not utilizing the plugin. Visit Wordfence's blog for additional information on the indicators and the sources of requests that are the most common.

If you're still using it, you need to remove the Kaswara Modern WPBakery Page Builder Addons plugin from your WordPress website.

Microsoft: Provide Code for MacOS App Sandbox Flaw

 


MacOS has a vulnerability that was discovered by  Microsoft, it might allow specially created code to execute freely on the system and get past the App Sandbox. 

The security flaw, identified as CVE-2022-26706 (CVSS rating: 5.5), affects iOS, iPadOS, macOS, tvOS, and watchOS. It was patched by Apple in May 2022. In October 2021, Microsoft notified Apple of the problem via Microsoft Security Vulnerability Research (MSVR) and Coordinated Vulnerability Disclosure (CVD).

Sandbox Objective

A specifically written Office document with malicious macro code that allows for system command execution and sandbox limitation bypass can be used by an attacker to exploit the bug. Although Apple's App Sandbox is intended to strictly control a third-party app's access to system resources and user data, the vulnerability allows for obfuscation of these limitations and penetration of the system.

When a user runs malicious software, the main goal of the sandbox is to prevent damage to the system and the user's data.

Microsoft researchers showed that the sandbox rules may be evaded by utilizing specially written software. The sandbox escape vulnerability could be used by an attacker to take charge of the vulnerable device with elevated privileges or to carry out malicious operations like downloading malicious payloads.

The experts originally developed a proof-of-concept (POC) exploit to produce a macro that starts a shell script using the Terminal app, but it was intercepted by the sandbox since it had been given the extended attribute com.apple.quarantine, which inhibits the execution by the Terminal, automatically. The experts then attempted to use Python scripts, but the Python application had a similar problem running files with the mentioned attribute.

"However, this restriction can be removed by using the -stdin option for the open command in the Python exploit code. Since Python had no way of knowing that the contents of its standard input came from a quarantined file, -stdin was able to get around the 'com.apple.quarantine' extended attribute restriction," according to a report by Jonathan Bar Or of the Microsoft 365 Defender Research Team.


SAP Security Patch for July: Six High Priority Notes

The July 2022 patch release from SAP was released in addition to 27 new and updated SAP Security Notes. The most serious of these problems is information disclosure vulnerability CVE-2022-35228 (CVSS score of 8.3) in the BusinessObjects Business Intelligence Platform's central administration console.

Notes for SAP Business One 

The three main areas that are impacted by the current SAP Security Notes are as follows, hence Onapsis Research Labs advises carefully reviewing all the information:
  • In integration cases involving SAP B1 and SAP HANA, with a CVSS score of 7.6(CVE-2022-32249), patches a significant information release vulnerability. The highly privileged hackers take advantage of the vulnerability to access confidential data that could be used to support further exploits.
  • With a CVSS rating of 7.5 (CVE-2022-28771),  resolves a vulnerability with SAP B1's license service API. An unauthorized attacker can disrupt the app and make it inaccessible by sending bogus HTTP requests over the network if there is a missing authentication step.
  • A CVSS score of 7.4(CVE-2022-31593), is the third High Priority note. This notice patches SAP B1 client vulnerability that allowed code injection. An attacker with low privileges can use the vulnerability to manipulate the application's behavior.
On July 20, 2022, SAP announced 17 security notes to fix vulnerabilities of medium severity, the bulk of which affect the NetWeaver Enterprise Portal and Business Objects.

Cross-site scripting (XSS) vulnerabilities in the NetWeaver Enterprise Portal were addressed in six security notes that SAP published, each of which had a CVSS score of 6.1. Medium-severity problems in Business Objects are covered by five more security notes.

The SAP July Patch Day illustrates the value of examining all SAP Security Notes prior to applying patches. 

A SQL Injection bug Hits the Django web Framework

 

A serious vulnerability has been addressed in the most recent versions of the open-source Django web framework. 

Updates decrease the risk of SQL Injection

Developers are advised to update or patch their Django instances as soon after the Django team issues versions Django 4.0.6 and Django 3.2.14 that fix a high-severity SQL injection vulnerability. 

Malicious actors may exploit the vulnerability, CVE-2022-34265, by passing particular inputs to the Trunc and Extract methods.

The issue, which can be leveraged if untrusted data was used as a kind/lookup name value, is said to be present in the Trunc() and Extract() database functions, according to the researchers. It is feasible to lessen the danger of being exploited by implementing input sanitization for these functions.

Bugfixes 

Django's main branch and the 4.1, 4.0, and 3.2 release branches have all received patches to fix the problem. 

"This security update eliminates the problem, but we've found enhancements to the Database API methods for date extract and truncate that should be added to Django 4.1 before its official release. Django 4.1 releases candidate 1 or newer third-party database backends will be affected by this until they can be updated to the new API. We apologize for the trouble," Django team stated.

Google: 5-year-old Apple Flaw Exploited

 

Google Project Zero researchers have revealed insights into a vulnerability in Apple Safari that has been extensively exploited in the wild. The vulnerability, known as CVE-2022-22620, was first patched in 2013, but experts identified a technique to overcome it in 2016. 

Apple has updated a zero-day vulnerability in the WebKit that affects iOS, iPadOS, macOS, and Safari and could have been extensively exploited in the wild, according to CVE org. 

In February, Apple patched the zero-day vulnerability; it's a use-after-free flaw that may be accessed by processing maliciously generated web content, spoofing credentials, and resulting in arbitrary code execution ."When the issue was first discovered in 2013, the version was patched entirely," Google Project Zero's Maddie Stone stated. "Three years later, amid substantial restructuring efforts, the variant was reintroduced. The vulnerability remained active for another five years before being addressed as an in-the-wild zero-day in January 2022." 

While the flaws in the History of API bug from 2013 and 2022 are fundamentally the same, the routes to triggering the vulnerability are different. The zero-day issue was then reborn as a "zombie" by further code updates made years later. 

An anonymous researcher discovered the flaw, and the corporation fixed it with better memory management. Maddie Stone examined the software's evolution over time, beginning with the code of Apple's fix and the security bulletin's description of the vulnerability, which stated that the flaw is a use-after-free flaw. 

“As an offensive security research team, we can make assumptions about the main issues that current software development teams face: Legacy code, short reviewer turn-around expectations, under-appreciation and under-rewarding of refactoring and security efforts, and a lack of memory safety mitigations” the report stated. 

"In October, 40 files were modified, with 900 additions and 1225 removals. The December commit modified 95 files, resulting in 1336 additions and 1325 removals," Stone highlighted. 

Stone further underlined the need of spending appropriate time to audit code and patches to minimize instances of duplication of fixes and to understand the security implications of the modifications being made, citing that the incident is not unique to Safari.

Sophos Firewall Zero-Day Flaw Exploited by Hackers

 

Chinese hackers leveraged a zero-day exploit for a vital vulnerability in Sophos Firewall to infiltrate a corporation and gain access to the victim's cloud-hosted web servers. Although the security flaw has been patched, many threat actors have continued to use it to escape authentication and execute arbitrary code remotely on businesses. 

Sophos Firewall's User Portal and Webadmin parts were found to have an authentication bypass vulnerability, which was tagged as CVE-2022-1040 on March 25. 

Researchers from Volexity revealed that Chinese threat actors used the zero-day vulnerability in Sophos Firewall (CVE-2022-1040) to hack a corporation and its cloud-hosted web servers. The threat actor was still operational when Volexity started the study, and the researchers were able to track the attacker's movements, showing a clever adversary who tried to go undiscovered.

According to the researchers, "the attacker was using access to the firewall to conduct man-in-the-middle (MitM) assaults." "Data obtained from these MitM assaults was used by the attacker to target further systems outside of the network where the firewall was located." Following the firewall breach, the infection sequence included backdooring a legitimate component of the security software with the Behinder web shell, which could be accessed remotely from any URL chosen by the threat actor.

Securing web server access 

Apart from the web shell, Volexity discovered further malicious behavior that maintained the threat actor's survival and allowed them to carry on the attack: 
  • The initial phase in the assault is gaining access to the Sophos Firewall, which permits a Man-in-the-Middle (MitM) attack by altering DNS replies for specified websites of the victim companies. 
  • Using stolen session cookies, the attacker gains access to the CMS admin page and then installs a File Manager plugin to manipulate files on the website. 
For a simpler investigation of intrusions, the firm advises using the auditd framework on Unix-based servers. Vendors' devices should also include tools for analyzing potential security flaws. Volexity also made a set of YARA rules accessible that may be used to detect unusual behavior from this form of threat.

Intel and AMD CPU Trageted by the New 'Hertzbleed' Remote Side-Channel Attack

A group of academic researchers has found a potential side-channel method that uses a CPU timing hack to allow attackers to remotely retrieve critical information from a target network. The problem, which has been dubbed Hertzbleed by a team of researchers from the University of Texas, the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, and the University of Washington, is induced by dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS), power and thermal management feature used to conserve power and reduce the amount of heat generated by a chip.  

"Periodic CPU frequency adjustments depend on current CPU power usage under particular situations, and these adjustments immediately translate to execution time variations (since 1 hertz Equals 1 cycle per second)," the researchers stated. An intruder can exploit cryptographic software and get crucial cryptographic keys by analyzing these temporal differences – in some circumstances, even a remote attacker can detect the variances.

SIKE, or Supersingular Isogeny Key Encapsulation, a post-quantum key encapsulation technology utilized by firms like Microsoft and Cloudflare, was used to demonstrate the assault. In reaction to the discoveries, both AMD (CVE-2022-23823) and Intel (CVE-2022-24436) have released independent advisories, with the latter stating that Hertzbleed affects all Intel processors due to unauthorized access. 
There are no patches available. 

Intel has issued two customer advisories in response to the Hertzbleed attacks. All of Intel's chips are affected, as per the chipmaker. While no CPU firmware changes have been released, the company has provided cryptography recommendations for software developers to "harden its libraries and applications from frequency throttling information leaking."

Hertzbleed has been the subject of an AMD alert; several desktops, mobile, Chromebook, and server processors have been identified as being affected by the bug, as per the company. AMD has also recommended that software developers implement defenses.

It's not the first time that new data theft techniques from Intel chips have been discovered. Two Hertzbleed co-authors showed an "on-chip, cross-core" side-channel attack targeting Intel Coffee Lake and Skylake CPUs' ring interconnect in March 2021. The researchers stated, "The message is that current cryptography engineering approaches for writing constant-time code are no longer sufficient to guarantee constant-time execution of software on newer, variable-frequency CPUs."

China's Attacks on Telecom Providers Were Exposed by US

 

Since 2020, US cybersecurity and intelligence agencies have cautioned about state-sponsored cyber attackers located in China using network vulnerabilities to target public and private sector enterprises.

Chinese hacking gangs have used publicly known vulnerabilities to infiltrate everything from unpatched small office/home office (SOHO) routers to moderate and even big enterprise networks, according to a joint cybersecurity alert released on Tuesday by the NSA, CISA, and the FBI. 

Several servers are used by China-linked APTs to create new email accounts, host command and control (C&C) domains, and connect with target networks, using hop points as an obfuscation strategy to mask its true location."Once within a telecommunications organization or network service provider, PRC state-sponsored cyber actors identified essential users and infrastructure, including systems critical to ensuring the stability of authentication, authorization, and accounting," as per the report. 

These threat actors are continually altering their techniques to avoid detection, according to US authorities, including watching network defenders' actions and adjusting current attacks to remain undiscovered. 

They were also seen changing the infrastructure and tools when the campaigns were made public. After stealing credentials to access underlying SQL databases, the attackers utilized SQL commands to discard user and admin credentials from key Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) servers. The three US agencies have revealed that Chinese threat actors primarily exploit vulnerabilities in: 
  • Cisco (CVE-2018-0171, CVE-2019-15271, and CVE-2019-1652)
  • Citrix (CVE-2019-19781) 
  • DrayTek (CVE-2020-8515) 
  • D-Link (CVE-2019-16920) 
  • Fortinet (CVE-2018-13382) 
  • MikroTik (CVE-2018-14847) 
  • Netgear (CVE-2017-6862) 
  • Pulse ( (CVE-2020-29583) 

Open-source tools such as RouterSploit and RouterScan (vulnerability scanning framework) are used by threat actors to scan for vulnerabilities and conduct reconnaissance, allowing them to identify brands, models, and known problems that can be attacked. 

"Once within a network service provider, PRC state-sponsored cyber actors identified essential users and infrastructure, particularly systems critical to maintaining the security of authentication, authorization, and accounting," as per the joint advisory.

Lastly, the attackers altered or deleted local log files to eliminate proof of its presence and avoid discovery. Security updates should be applied as quickly as feasible, unneeded ports and protocols should be disabled to reduce the attack surface, and end-of-life network infrastructure which no longer receives security patches should be replaced, according to federal agencies.

Segmenting networks to prevent lateral movement and enabling robust monitoring on internet-exposed services to discover attack attempts as soon as possible are also recommended.

 SideWinder Hackers Have Planted a Bogus Android VPN Program

 

A bogus VPN program for Android smartphones was uploaded on the Google Play Store, along with a proprietary tool that screens users for improved targeting, according to phishing efforts linked to an advanced threat actor known as SideWinder. SideWinder is an APT organization that has been operating since at least 2012 and is thought to be led by an Indian actor with a high level of expertise.

Over 1,000 cyber attacks were ascribed to this gang in the last two years, according to Kaspersky, who praised its persistence and clever obfuscation tactics. Organizations in Pakistan, China, Nepal, and Afghanistan are the principal targets.

The threat actor uses spear-phishing emails to spread malicious ZIP bundles containing RTF or LNK files that install an HTML Application (HTA) payload from a remote server. The adversary uses a pretty big infrastructure that includes over 92 IP addresses, mostly for phishing assaults, and hundreds of domains and subdomains that serve as command and control servers. 

SideWinder, also known by the names, RattleSnake, Razor Tiger, T-APT-04, APT-C-17, and Hardcore Nationalist, was responsible for a recent phishing campaign that targeted both public and commercial sector institutions in Pakistan. 

A phishing document tempting victims with a document advocating "a formal debate of the impact of the US withdrawal from Afghanistan on maritime security" was discovered earlier this year by researchers at cybersecurity firm Group-IB. While the exact purpose of the bogus VPN program is unknown, this isn't the first time SideWinder has gotten around Google Play Store restrictions by publishing malicious apps disguised as utility software.

Trend Micro reported in January 2020 that three malicious applications masquerading as photography and file manager utilities used a security weakness in Android (CVE-2019-2215) to acquire root access and abuse accessibility service rights to gather sensitive data.

Zyxel: Firewalls, Access Points, and Controllers are Vulnerable

 

Zyxel has issued a cybersecurity advisory alerting administrators about various vulnerabilities impacting a variety of firewall, access point, and access point controller products. 

While the flaws are yet not ascribed a high severity rating, the potential damage they can cause is something to be taken seriously as these flaws could be exploited by malicious attackers as an aspect of exploit chains. Moreover, Zyxel goods are used by large enterprises, and any exploitable faults in them attract threat actors right away. 

The most serious of the four flaws is a command injection problem in various CLI commands, which is classified as CVE-2022-26532 (CVSS v3.1 7.8):

  • CVE-2022-0734: A cross-site scripting vulnerability has been discovered in the CGI, which could allow a malicious script to access information stored in the user's browser, such as cookies. 
  • CVE-2022-26531: A locally authenticated attacker might utilize a system crash by exploiting several erroneous input validation issues in various CLI commands of some firewall, AP controller, and AP versions. 
  • CVE-2022-26532: A command injection vulnerability in some firewall, AP controller, and AP versions' "packet-trace" CLI command might enable a local authorized attacker to execute arbitrary OS instructions by passing crafted parameters to the command. 
  • CVE-2022-0910: An attacker might use an IPsec VPN client to downgrade from two-factor authentication to one-factor authentication. 

While Zyxel has released software updates for firewalls and access points, the only way to get a hotfix for AP controllers affected by CVE-2022-26531 and CVE-2022-26532 is to contact the local Zyxel support teams. 

The news comes as a major command injection hole in select Zyxel firewalls; CVE-2022-30525, CVSS score: 9.8) has been actively exploited, forcing the US Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency to add the vulnerability to its Recorded Exploited Vulnerabilities Database.

Safeguarding Android Users From Zero-Day Attacks

 

The term "zero-day" refers to newly found security flaws that hackers can exploit to attack systems. It refers to the fact that the vendor or developer only recently discovered the fault, leaving them with "zero days" to repair it. A zero-day attack is when a zero-day exploit is used to harm or steal data from a system that has been exposed to a vulnerability.

Google's Threat Analysis Group (TAG) is always on the lookout for zero-day exploits. In 2021, it revealed nine zero-day exploits impacting Chrome, Android, Apple, and Microsoft, resulting in updates to safeguard consumers. Google believes that these attacks were bundled by a single commercial monitoring firm called Cytrox.

Cytrox is a North Macedonian firm with offices in Israel and Hungary that was exposed in late 2021 as the creator and maintainer of the spyware "Predator". 

According to new Google research, Cytrox offers new exploits to government-backed actors, who subsequently deploy them in three separate attack campaigns. Egypt, Armenia, Greece, Madagascar, Côte d'Ivoire, Serbia, Spain, and Indonesia are among the actors who purchased Cytrox services. 

The hackers take advantage of the time differential between when some significant problems were patched but not identified as security issues and when these fixes were fully propagated across the Android ecosystem, using 0-day exploits alongside n-day exploits. 

These findings highlight the extent to which commercial surveillance vendors have proliferated capabilities that were previously solely available to governments with the technical know-how to build and deploy exploits. TAG is actively tracking more than 30 vendors providing exploits or surveillance capabilities to government-backed entities, with different levels of sophistication and public exposure.

The three initiatives were all emailed to targeted Android users with one-time URLs that looked like URL shortener services. The campaign was small - researchers estimate that the number of users targeted in each case was in the tens of thousands. When the link was clicked, the target was sent to an attacker-controlled domain that provided the bugs before redirecting the browser to a legitimate website. The user was forwarded to a valid website if the link was not active. These ads are believed to be transmitted by ALIEN, a simple Android malware capable of loading PREDATOR, an Android implant first reported by CitizenLab in December 2021. 

  • Campaign 1 – Chrome redirection to SBrowser (CVE-2021-38000): In August 2021, the first campaign was discovered using Chrome on a Samsung Galaxy S21, and the webserver immediately responded with an HTTP redirect (302) pointing to the following intended URL. This URL took use of a logic issue in Chrome to force the Samsung Browser to load another URL without user intervention or warnings. 
  • Campaign 2 – Chrome sandbox escape: TAG discovered a campaign in September 2021, in which the exploit chain was sent to a fully updated Samsung Galaxy S10 running Chrome. The exploit that was utilized to get out of the Chrome Sandbox was retrieved, but not the original RCE exploit. The libchrome-embedded sandbox escape was loaded directly as an ELF binary. Libmojo bridge is also custom. The exploit was found to have two separate vulnerabilities in Chrome that are given below: 
  1. CVE-2021-37973: In the handling of Portals API and Fenced subframes, there is a use-after-free vulnerability. 
  2. CVE-2021-37976: A memory instrumentation. mojom. Coordinator information leak allows privileged programs to obtain Global Memory Dumps. These dumps contain sensitive data (addresses) that can be utilized to circumvent ASLR. After escaping the sandbox, the vulnerability downloaded another exploit to raise privileges and install the implant in /data/data/com.android.chrome/p.so. 
  • Campaign 3 – Android 0-day exploit chain in its entirety (CVE-2021-38003, CVE-2021-1048): A full chain exploits on an up-to-date Samsung phone running the newest version of Chrome in October 2021. Two zero-day exploits were included in the chain: CVE-2021-38003, a JSON renderer 0-day vulnerability. The whole value is leaked, allowing the attacker to totally exploit the renderer. The sandbox escape relied on a Linux kernel fault in the epoll() system call. The attacker can use this system call to escape the BPF sandbox and compromise the system by injecting code into privileged processes. 
Google hasn't been able to locate a copy of the exploit and will continue to keep the community informed as they learn more about these campaigns. To combat these issues, a robust, comprehensive approach will be required, involving collaboration between threat intelligence teams, network defenders, university researchers, and technology platforms.

Apple Launched a Safety Fix for a Zero-day Flaw

 

Apple released an emergency patch for iPhone, Mac, and iPad early last month that addressed two zero-day vulnerabilities in the various operating systems. Now, just days after the launch of iOS 15.5, Apple is asking Mac and Apple Watch owners to upgrade. 

Zero-day vulnerabilities are defects in software that the vendor is ignorant of and has not yet patched. Before a fix is released, this type of vulnerability may have publicly available proof-of-concept hacks or be actively exploited in the wild. Apple stated in security warnings released on Monday that they are aware of reports this security flaw "may have been actively exploited."

CVE-2022-22675 is a bug in AppleAVD, an audio and video extension that allows programs to run arbitrary code with kernel privileges. Apple patched the flaw in macOS Big Sur 11.6., watchOS 8.6, and tvOS 15.5 with enhanced bounds checking after unknown researchers reported it. Apple Watch Series 3 or later, Macs running macOS Big Sur, Apple TV 4K, Apple TV 4K (2nd generation), and Apple TV HD are all among the affected. 
  • In 2022, Apple had five zero-day vulnerabilities. Apple patched two more zero-day vulnerabilities in January, allowing hackers to execute arbitrary code with kernel privileges (CVE-2022-22587) and track online surfing habits and user identities in real-time (CVE-2022-22594). 
  • Apple also issued security upgrades to address a new zero-day vulnerability (CVE-2022-22620) that was used to compromise iPhones, iPads, and Macs.
  •  Two more actively exploited zero-days in the Intel Graphics Driver (CVE-2022-22674) and the AppleAVD media decoder were discovered in March (CVE-2022-22675). The latter is also backported in older macOS versions, including watchOS 8.6 and tvOS 15.5. 

Apple did not previously disclose specifics about the flaw to prevent hackers from using the knowledge. While, throughout last year, Apple fixed a slew of zero-day vulnerabilities that had been discovered in the wild and targeted iOS, iPadOS, and macOS devices. 

How do I upgrade my Mac? 
  • In the corner of the screen, select the Apple menu, and 'System Preferences' will appear. 
  • Click 'Software Update' in the following menu. 
  • Then select 'Update Now' or 'Upgrade Now' from the menu. 
If you're still using an older version of the operating system, such as Big Sur, click 'Upgrade Now' to upgrade to the most recent version. Monterey is approximately 12GB in size. 

How to manually update your Apple Watch: 
  • Open the Apple Watch app on your iPhone, then tap the 'My Watch' tab. 
  • Select 'Software Update' from the General menu. 
  • Install the update. If your iPhone or Apple Watch passcode is requested, enter it. 
  • On your Apple Watch, wait for the progress wheel to display. The update could take anything from a few minutes to an hour to finish.

Google: Two Major Pixel Vulnerabilities Patched

 

Google has published updates for Android 10, 11, 12, and 12L which include Pixel security patches. The Android Security Bulletin for May offers information about security flaws could affect Android devices. 
 
The Pixel Update Bulletin offers information about security flaws and functional enhancements for concerned Pixel devices. Google Pixel phones are "pure Android" devices. The two bulletins identify significant vulnerabilities as follows : 

  • CVE-2022-20120—Bootloader [Critical] The bootloader has a remote code execution (RCE) flaw. The bootloader on Android is a software program that loads the operating system every time users turn on the phone. It can only load software which has been signed by Google by default. If users unlock the bootloader, though, it will run whatever software you specify. The precise problem hasn't been revealed yet, but based on the scale of access required to exploit it, it may be very serious.
  • CVE-2022-20117— Titan-M[Critical] Titan M has an information disclosure (ID) flaw. Titan M is a security management chip designed specifically for Pixel phones to protect the most sensitive data and os version on the device. Titan M aids the bootloader in ensuring users running the correct Android version. . However, being able to steal data from the portion which is supposed to protect the most sensitive information does not look well. 
  • CVE-2021-35090: Qualcomm[Moderate] Qualcomm chips are the most extensively used in Android smartphones. 9.3 out of 10 for CVSS. Qualcomm has recognized this race condition in Kernel as a Time-of-check Time-of-use (TOC TOU). A potential hypervisor memory corruption owing to a TOC TOU race scenario when changing address mappings was also mentioned. A TOC TOU occurs whenever a resource is tested for a specific value, such as whether or not a file exists, and then the value alters before the asset is utilized, invalidating the check's results. When multiple threads have access to shared data and attempt to update it at the same time, a race condition occurs.
  • CVE-2022-20119 Display/Graphics[High] 
  • CVE-2022-20121 USCCDMService[High] 

The most serious of these issues, according to Google, is a highly secure vulnerability in the Framework component which might lead to local elevation of privilege (EoP) with user execution rights required, although the company does not specify which of the four candidates it is. 

All problems in these bulletins are addressed in security patch versions 2022-05-05 or later for Google and other Android devices. Check and update one Android version to discover how to check a device's security patch level. Experts advise all Android users to update to the most recent version. 

This week, the Pixel 3a and Pixel 3a XL series will acquire its final security updates. When it comes to support, they then reach the End-of-Life (EOL)

The Fodcha DDoS Botnet Hits Over 100 Victims

 

Qihoo 360 researchers have found a rapidly spreading new botnet called Fodcha which is capable of performing over 100 attacks every day. Employing this new malware, the threat actor is attacking routers, DVRs, and servers. The actors were able to infect nearly 62,000 machines with the Fodcha virus in less than a month, as per the researchers. 

360 Netlab reports that the number of unique IP addresses affiliated with the botnet fluctuates, as they are monitoring a 10,000-strong Fodcha army of bots utilizing Chinese IP addresses every day, with the majority of them using China Unicom (59.9%) and China Telecom (59.9%) services (39.4 percent ). 

Researchers alleged that "Based on firsthand data from the security industry with whom we collaborated, the frequency of live bots is more than 56000." "The global infection appears to be quite large, as there are over 10,000 daily active bots (IPs) in China, as well as over 100 DDoS victims are targeted daily." 

The Fodcha infects devices by exploiting n-day vulnerabilities in many devices and employing the Crazyfia brute-force cracking tool. The botnet targets a variety of devices and services, including but not limited to: 

RCE for Android ADB Debug Server 
CVE-2021-22205 on GitLab 
CVE-2021-35394 in the Realtek Jungle SDK 
JAWS Webserver unverified shell command execution on MVPower DVR 
LILIN DVR RCE: LILIN DVR
TOTOLINK Routers: Backdoor TOTOLINK Routers
ZHONE Router: Web RCE ZHONE Router 

After successfully acquiring access to susceptible Internet-exposed devices samples, Fodcha attackers use Crazyfia result data to deploy malware payload. The botnet samples, according to 360 Netlab, target MIPS, MPSL, ARM, x86, and other CPU platforms. 

The botnet used the folded[.]in command-and-control (C2) domain from January 2022 until March 19, when it switched to fridgexperts[.]cc when the cloud vendor took down the essential C2 domain. 

"The switch from v1 to v2 is due to a cloud vendor shutting down the C2 servers corresponding to the v1 version, leaving Fodcha's operators with no alternative but to re-launch v2 and upgrade C2," the researchers reported. "The new C2 is mapped to over a dozen IP addresses and is scattered across different countries, including the United States, Korea, Japan, and India." It also includes more cloud providers, including Amazon, DediPath, DigitalOcean, Linode, and others. 


Top Israeli Officials Duped by Bearded Barbie Hackers

 

Cybercriminals appear to be aggressively promoting the Remcos RAT that first appeared in hacking forums in 2016 and was marketed sold, and offered cracks on a variety of websites and forums. In 2017, researchers discovered Remcos being distributed via a malicious PowerPoint slideshow with a CVE-2017-0199 exploit. Remcos RAT is a piece of commercial software which may be purchased online. 

An "elaborate effort" targeting high-profile Israeli individuals working in critical defense, law enforcement, and emergency services sectors has been traced to a threat actor associated with Hamas' cyber warfare section. The Hamas-backed hacker outfit dubbed 'APT-C-23' was discovered catfishing Israeli officials in defense, law enforcement, and government institutions, resulting in the deployment of new malware. 

Before delivering spyware, the campaign uses advanced social engineering techniques like creating phony social media identities and maintaining a strong partnership with the targets. AridViper has previously targeted Palestinian law enforcement, military, or educational institutions, as well as the Israel Security Agency, with spear-phishing assaults (ISA). Researchers from Cisco Talos discovered AridViper assaults against activists involved in the Israel-Palestine conflict in February.

Malicious actors have built several phony Facebook pages utilizing forged credentials and pirated or AI-generated photographs of attractive women, and have used these profiles to approach their targets. The operators have spent months curating these profiles to make them appear legitimate, posting in Hebrew and alike organizations and prominent pages in Israel. The creators of these profiles create a network of friends who are actually people who work in Israel's police, defense forces, emergency services, or government. The opponents recommend transferring the chat to WhatsApp, ostensibly for more privacy, after building the target's trust by talking with individuals for a while. 

The Android app is actually the virus VolatileVenom.The icon is concealed on pre-Android 10 devices; with Android 10, the virus utilizes the Google Play installation icon. When the victim tries to sign into the Wink Chat, an error message appears, stating the app will be deleted. With a wide spectrum of espionage capabilities, VolatileVenom continues to function in the background. 

The malicious actors will eventually email the target a RAR file containing supposedly explicit photographs or videos as part of the catfishing attempts. This RAR file, on the other hand, contains the Barb(ie) installer malware, which installs the BarbWire backdoor. The filename of a sample of Barb(ie) detected by Cybereason is "Windows Notifications," and when it is made to run, it performs basic anti-analysis checks. If the host is deemed appropriate, the downloader links to an integrated C2 server. 

The BarbWire Backdoor is sent by the C2 server. The downloader contains a backup technique for finding a different C2. If the attackers need to modify the C2 from the one inserted, they can simply send an SMS message with the new destination. All inbound SMS messages are intercepted by the downloader. If one is provided by the intruders, it can just extract the new C2 information and install the backdoor. BarbWire steals data from PDFs, Office files, archives, picture files, movies, and photos, among other file types. It also checks for external media, such as a CD-ROM file, implying it's hunting for highly sensitive material which is carried around physically or over the internet. The stolen information is stored in a RAR archive and then sent to the attackers' C2 server. 

APT-C-23 employs several approaches which have been used in previous operations against Israeli targets, but it is constantly evolving with new tools and more intricate social engineering efforts. The lack of overlapping infrastructure distinguishes Operation Bearded Barbie from past missions, indicating the group's goal of avoiding notice. Another escalation for the threat actor is the usage of two backdoors, one for Windows and one for Android, resulting in very active espionage for the compromised targets.

Due to New Router Flaws, Beastmode Botnet Has a Greater DDoS Potential

 

Beastmode (or B3astmode), a Mirai-based decentralized denial-of-service (DDoS) botnet, has extended its list of exploits to include three new ones, all of which target various models of Totolink devices.

Totolink is a well-known electronics sub-brand of Zioncom which recently published firmware patches to address three critical-severity flaws. DDoS botnet programmers wasted little time in adding these holes to their arsenal to take advantage of the window of opportunity before Totolink router customers installed the security patches. Beastmode has gained control of vulnerable routers, giving it access to hardware resources it can use to execute DDoS attacks.

The following is a list of vulnerabilities in TOTOLINK routers: 

  • CVE-2022-26210 (CVSS 9.8) - A command injection vulnerability that could be used to execute arbitrary code. 
  • CVE-2022-26186 is a vulnerability that affects computers (CVSS score: 9.8) TOTOLINK N600R and A7100RU routers are vulnerable to a command injection vulnerability. 
  • CVE-2022-25075 to CVE-2022-25084 (CVE-2022-25075 to CVE-2022-25084) (CVSS scores: 9.8) - A buffer overflow vulnerability has been discovered in certain TOTOLINK routers, resulting in code execution.  

CVE-2021-4045 is used to target the TP-Link Tapo C200 IP camera, which the researchers haven't seen in any other Mirai-based campaign. For the time being, the exploit has been implemented incorrectly and does not operate. "Device users must still update its camera software to correct this issue," the researchers suggest, citing indications of continued development. 

Although the flaws affect different devices, they all have the same effect: they allow the attacker to insert commands to download shell scripts via the wget command and infect the device with Beastmode. The shell scripts differ depending on which devices have been infected and which exploit has been used.

The vulnerabilities were not the only ones introduced to the Beastmode botnet; its creators also added the following previous bugs:

D-Link is affected by CVE-2021-45382, a remote code execution bug. DIR-810L, DIR-820L/LW, DIR-826L, DIR-830L, and DIR-836L are the DIR-810L, DIR-820L/LW, DIR-826L, DIR-830L, and DIR-836L. 
  • CVE-2021-4045 — Unauthenticated remote code execution bug in the TP-Link Tapo C200 IP camera. 
  • CVE-2017-17215 —  Unauthenticated remote code execution problem in Huawei HG532
  • CVE-2016-5674 — Remote execution of arbitrary PHP code through the log argument in the Netgear ReadyNAS product line.
Ensure to deploy the available security updates which correct the vulnerabilities mentioned above to prevent Mirai versions from seizing control of any router or IoT devices. Totolink users should go to the vendor's download center, choose the device model, and download and install the most recent firmware version available. 

A slow internet connection is one of the symptoms if your router has been exploited. Additional indicators include the device heating up more than usual, inability to get into the administration panel, changing settings, or an unresponsive device, which a typical user is likely to overlook.

Severe Flaws in Rockwell PLC Could Allow Attackers to Implant Malicious Code

 

Rockwell Automation's programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and engineering workstation software have two new security flaws that might be exploited by an intruder to introduce malicious code into affected systems and silently manipulate automation operations. 

In a way similar to Stuxnet and the Rogue7 assaults, the vulnerabilities have the ability to impair industrial operations and cause physical damage to factories. 

Claroty's Sharon Brizinov noted in a write-up published, "Programmable logic and predefined variables drive these [automation] processes, and changes to either will alter the normal operation of the PLC and the process it manages." 

The following is a list of two flaws – 
  • CVE-2022- (CVSS score: 10.0) — A remotely exploited weakness that allows a hostile actor to write user-readable "textual" computer code to a memory location independent from the compiled code that is being executed (aka bytecode). The problem is in Rockwell's ControlLogix, CompactLogix, and GuardLogix control systems' PLC firmware. 
  • CVE-2022-1159 =This vulnerability has a CVSS score of 7.7. Without the user's knowledge, an attacker with administrative access to a workstation running the Studio 5000 Logix Designer application can disrupt the compilation process and inject code into the user programme. 

Successfully exploiting the flaws could enable an attacker to change user programmes and download malicious code to the controller, effectively changing the PLC's normal operation and allowing rogue commands to be sent to the industrial system's physical devices. 

Brizinov explained, "The end result of exploiting both vulnerabilities is the same: The engineer believes that benign code is running on the PLC; meanwhile, completely different and potentially malicious code is being executed on the PLC." 

Because of the severity of the weaknesses, the US Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) has issued a warning outlining mitigation actions that users of the affected hardware and software can take as part of a "comprehensive defence-in-depth strategy."