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Showing posts with label CVEs. Show all posts

Billions of Wi-Fi and Bluetooth Devices Susceptible to Password and Data Theft Assaults


Cybersecurity researchers from Darmstadt University of Technology, together with colleagues from the Secure Mobile Networking Lab, University of Brescia and CNIT, have unearthed multiple security flaws in WiFi chips that can be abused to extract passwords and manipulate traffic on a WiFi chip via a Bluetooth feature. 

According to the research paper published by the experts, modern mobile devices have a chip with separate components for Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, and LTE, each with its own dedicated security execution. However, these chips usually share the same resources such as the antenna or the wireless spectrum to enhance the efficiency of the devices, minimizing the energy consumption and the latency in communications.

The shared resources of wireless modules can be used by attackers as bridges to perform privilege escalation assaults across wireless chip boundaries, researchers explained.

“This paper demonstrates lateral privilege escalations from a Bluetooth chip to code execution on a Wi-Fi chip. The WiFi chip encrypts network traffic and holds the current WiFi credentials, thereby providing the attacker with further information,” reads the article released by cybersecurity experts. 
“Moreover, an attacker can execute code on a Wi-Fi chip even if it is not connected to a wireless network. In the opposite direction, we observe Bluetooth packet types from a Wi-Fi chip. This allows determining keystroke timings on Bluetooth keyboards, which can allow reconstructing texts entered on the keyboard.”

To test the vulnerabilities, researchers performed practical coexistence assaults on Broadcom, Cypress, and Silicon Labs chips deployed in billions of devices. The demonstration allowed researchers to achieve WiFi code execution, memory readout, and denial of service. 

In total, researchers identified nine different flaws. Some can be patched with firmware updates, while others can only be fixed with new hardware revisions that put billions of existing devices at risk of potential attacks. Attackers can execute code by exploiting an unpatched or new security issue over the air or abusing the local OS firmware update mechanism.

“Some issues can only be patched by releasing a new hardware revision. For example, a new firmware version will not physically remove shared memory from a chip or adjust for arbitrary jitter in a serial protocol. Moreover, some packet timing and metadata cannot be removed without negatively impacting packet coordination performance” researchers added. 

All the nine flaws can be tracked by the following names: 

CVE-2020-10368: WiFi unencrypted data leak (architecture) 
CVE-2020-10367: Wi-Fi code execution (architecture) 
CVE- 2019-15063: Wi-Fi denial of service (protocol) 
CVE-2020 -10370: Bluetooth denial of service (protocol) CVE-2020-10369: Bluetooth data leak (protocol) 
CVE-2020-29531: WiFi denial of service (protocol) 
CVE-2020-29533: WiFi data leak (protocol) 
CVE-2020-29532: Bluetooth denial of service (protocol) CVE-2020-29530: Bluetooth data leak (protocol) 

The researchers have reported their findings to the chip vendors, and some of them have already patched the security loopholes. However, many have not fixed these security bugs either because they are no longer compatible with the affected products or because firmware is unworkable.

Linux Foundation Patches Critical Critical Code Vulnerability


CVE-2021-43267 vulnerability is detailed as a heap overflow Transparent Inter-Process Communication (TIPC) module shipping with Linux kernels to let nodes in a group communicate with each other in a fault-proof way. 'While TIPC itself isn’t loaded automatically by the system and has to be enabled by end users, Van Amerongen said the ability to configure it from an unprivileged local perspective and the possibility of remote exploitation "makes this a dangerous vulnerability" for those that use it in their networks," reports Security Week. 

The flaw can be abused either locally or via remote code execution within a network framework to get kernel privileges, which allows a hacker to exploit an entire system. Experts discovered a bug in most attacks that used Microsoft's CodeQL, an open-source semantic code analysis engine that assists to identify security flaws. As per the experts, the flaw surfaced in the Linux kernel in September last year, after a MSG_CTYPTO (a new message type) was included to let actors distribute cryptographic codes. 

While investigating the code, expert Van Amerongen discovered a “clear-cut kernel heap buffer overflow," along with remote code execution hints. , Vulnerable TIPC module is loaded with main Linux distributions, however, it requires loading in order to trigger the vulnerability and enable the protocol. A patch was shipped by Linux foundation on October 29, confirming the existing vulnerability which affects kernel variants between 5.10 and 5.15. 

As per cybersecurity firm Sentinel One, it hasn't found any proof of vulnerability exploits in the wild. “This vulnerability can be exploited both locally and remotely. While local exploitation is easier due to greater control over the objects allocated in the kernel heap, remote exploitation can be achieved thanks to the structures that TIPC supports. As this vulnerability was discovered within a year of its introduction into the codebase, TIPC users should ensure that their Linux kernel version is not between 5.10-rc1 and 5.15,” says cybersecurity expert Van Amerongen.

Researchers Devise New Time And Power-Based Side-Channel Attacks that Affect AMD CPUs


A team of researchers from the Graz University of Technology and CISPA Helmholtz Center for Information Security. developed a novel side-channel exploit that targets AMD CPUs. 

Moritz Lipp and Daniel Gruss of the Graz University of Technology, along with Michael Schwarz of the CISPA Helmholtz Center for Information Security, established the new attack technique. They were first to uncover the Meltdown and Spectre vulnerabilities, which opened the door for numerous additional side-channel attack methods targeting commonly used chips. 

These side-channel exploits generally permit a malicious program installed on the targeted system to leverage CPU flaws to access potentially sensitive information in memory linked with other apps, such as credentials and encryption keys. 

Several of the side-channel assaults revealed in recent years have targeted Intel processors, but systems powered by AMD processors are not protected, as per the recently published research. 

“In contrast to previous work on prefetch attacks on Intel, we show that the prefetch instruction on AMD leaks even more information,” the researchers explained in the abstract of their paper. 

The study presented numerous attack scenarios, one of which researchers used a Spectre attack to disclose confidential material from the operating system and provided a novel way for building a covert channel to steal information. 

In addition, the research suggests having discovered the first "full microarchitectural KASLR (kernel address space layout randomization) break on AMD that works on all major operating systems." KASLR is an attack mitigation method, and the experts demonstrated how an intruder might defeat it on laptops, desktop PCs, and cloud virtual machines. 

AMD was notified about the results in mid-and late 2020, the vendor recognized them and gave a response in February 2021; the flaws have been assigned the CVE identifier CVE-2021-26318 and a medium severity grade by AMD. 

The chipmaker acknowledged that perhaps the problem affects all of its processors, but it isn't suggesting any additional mitigations since "the attacks discussed in the paper do not directly leak data across address space boundaries." 

Lipp feels that their most recent study covers several intriguing features of AMD CPUs that might spur further investigation into side-channel assaults. 

He further explained, “For instance, we use RDPRU as a timing primitive as the typically used rdtsc instruction has a lower resolution on AMD. This allows to distinguish events with only a slight timing difference. On the other hand, we use the reported energy consumption of the AMD driver to mount an attack. While this driver has now been removed from the Linux kernel, using this energy source could be interesting to mount other power side-channel attacks as we have shown on Intel with the PLATYPUS attacks.”

IBM X-Force Publishes a List of Top 10 Cybersecurity Vulnerabilities of 2020


The severity of cyber-attacks has grown over the past year especially during the global pandemic. Threat actors are looking for unpatched issues or common vulnerabilities and exposures (CVEs) and are exploiting those vulnerabilities to gain initial access to a network. 

According to the 2021 X-Force Threat Intelligence Index, the list of the 10 most exploited susceptibilities of 2020 was dominated by older security issues, with just two out of the top 10 being spotted in 2020. Since 1988, the number of flaws discovered each year has followed a general upward trend with 17,992 new flaws discovered in 2020. 

 Top 10 CVEs exploited by threat actors 

IBM security X-force revealed a list of top 10 CVEs of 2020 based on how frequently threat actors exploited them. The list is based on both IBM X-Force incident response (IR) and IBM managed security services (MSS) data for 2020. Mostly, threat actors targeted common enterprise applications and open-source frameworks that many organizations use within their networks.

•CVE-2019-19871: Citrix Application Delivery Controller (ADC)
•CVE-2018-20062: NoneCMS ThinkPHP Remote Code Execution
•CVE-2006-1547: ActionForm in Apache Software Foundation (SAF) Struts
•CVE-2012-0391: ExceptionDelegator component in Apache Struts
•CVE-2014-6271: GNU Bash Command Injection
•CVE-2019-0708: ‘Bluekeep’ Microsoft Remote Desktop Services Remote Code Execution
•CVE-2020-8515: Draytek Vigor Command Injection
•CVE-2018-13382 and CVE-2018-13379: Improper Authorization and Path Traversal in Fortinet FortiOS
•CVE-2018-11776: Apache Struts Remote Code Execution
•CVE-2020-5722: HTTP: Grandstream UCM6200 SQL Injection 

How to manage the flaws and shield the network from CVEs? 

To patch the vulnerabilities or to protect the network from CVEs, you need to make hard decisions and require accounting for asset and data classification, business goals, risk, performance benchmarks, and much more. Some networks have sensitive machines and infrastructure that need rigorous testing to ensure nothing will fail when an update or patch is applied.

Three important techniques can be used to execute a robust patch-management program: 

(1). Organizations can use vulnerability management tools and crown jewel analysis to identify which assets are classified as critical to your organization, and which flaws are most likely to impact those assets. 

(2). Organizations can design a test environment that can assist in discovering the problems that may occur once a patch is installed in your enterprise environment.

(3). Companies should update their devices, operating systems, applications, versions, and cloud assets every quarter.