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Where Do the Most Ransomware Attacks Take Place in the United States?


Ransomware can be as disruptive to your day as a flood, earthquake, fire, or another natural disaster. It has the potential to devastate businesses, close hospitals, and close schools. And if you're unlucky enough to be affected, it can completely devastate your finances. 

However, as with natural apocalyptic events, there are patterns in misfortune, and it is possible to draw patterns and identify high-risk areas. You can avoid disaster entirely with some forethought. 

What is Ransomware? 

Criminals are after your money, and draining your bank account is problematic. By encrypting vital files on compromised computers, criminals persuade victims to hand over their money voluntarily. Companies that are unable to perform business and are losing money every day, they are not functioning and will frequently pay criminals to decrypt their machines and enable them to continue trading. Criminals typically gain access to devices through either lax security processes or social engineering attacks.

Engaging in any criminal enterprise is a risky business, and cybercriminals prefer to target targets that will net them the most money while exposing them to the least amount of risk. It makes more sense to hit fewer large targets rather than many small ones. And it's understandable that they'd rather target businesses that are more likely to pay than call law enforcement.

Between 2018 and January 2023, there were 2,122 ransomware attacks in the United States, as per Comparitech research. That's a lot, and even more is likely to have gone unreported. Even if this figure is taken at face value, it equates to more than one ransomware attack per day. Each ransom was worth an astounding $2.3 million on average.

Naturally, because businesses have more money than private individuals, schools, or government agencies, they are regarded as the biggest jackpot for hackers. And because they're constantly making money, every pause costs them more. The largest ransom known to have been paid during this time period was a whopping $60 million paid in 2022 by Intrado, a communications company with interests in cloud collaboration, 911 operations, enterprise communications, and digital media, among other things.

In fact, nine of the top ten ransoms were paid by corporations, including Kia Motors, Garmin, and EDP Renewables. The education sector is prominent, with Broward County Public Schools paying the second-largest ransom of $40 million in 2021. The notorious Conti group, which has been linked to hundreds of other attacks, carried out the attack.

Hospitals and other medical care facilities are prime targets for ransomware attacks because when hospital computers go down, patients don't get the care they require, and people die. Ransoms from the healthcare sector tend to be lower, with an average payout of around $700,000, possibly because the criminals have some conscience about people dying as a direct result of their actions.

Government facilities are also frequently targeted, with state and regional facilities particularly vulnerable. Local government agencies have limited IT security resources and frequently use outdated software due to their stricter budgets, making them easier targets. However, this also means that they pay significantly less than businesses with a median revenue of half a million dollars.

Where do most attacks take place?

Ransomware attacks occur wherever criminals believe they can make a quick buck, and attacks are concentrated in areas with a high concentration of wealth and businesses with a high turnover.

In the United States, this includes the east coast, which includes Washington, DC, Maryland, Delaware, and New York; the north-west coast, which includes California and Seattle; and major regional hubs like Chicago, Illinois. The majority of these attacks target businesses, but that doesn't mean the rest of the country is safe. Attacks on healthcare and government are far more common in poorer states. Again, this is most likely due to reduced IT budgets.

Between 2018 and January 2023, no US state was immune to ransomware attacks, though some were either less appealing or more resilient to criminals. Wyoming had the fewest reported attacks, with one ransomware incident at Carbon Power and Light and two healthcare facility attacks.

Ransomware is frightening, but just like designing flood defences or forest fires, there are steps you can take to avoid becoming a victim. Here are some of the best recommendations:
  • Take regular backups and store them securely
  • Employ a good antivirus
  • Train your staff
  • Keep your systems updated
Ransomware is terrible, but at least you know that if you pay the ransom, your system will be restored to normal working order and you can resume business as usual... right? This isn't always true. What appears to be ransomware is sometimes fake ransomware: your files have been encrypted, but the criminals who have encrypted them will never decrypt them.

A New Era is Emerging in Cybersecurity, but Only the Best Algorithms will Survive


The industry identified that basic fingerprinting could not maintain up with the rate of these developments, and the requirement to be everywhere, at all times, pushed the acceptance of AI technology to deal with the scale and complexity of modern business security. 

Since then, the AI defence market has become crowded with vendors promising data analytics, looking for "fuzzy matches": close matches to previously encountered threats, and eventually using machine learning to detect similar attacks. While this is an advancement over basic signatures, using AI in this manner does not hide the fact that it is still reactive. It may be capable of recognizing attacks that are very similar to previous incidents, but it is unable to prevent new attack infrastructure and techniques that the system has never seen before.

Whatever you call it, this system is still receiving the same historical attack data. It recognises that in order to succeed, there must be a "patient zero" — or first victim. Supervised machine learning is another term for "pretraining" an AI on observed data (ML). This method does have some clever applications in cybersecurity. For example, in threat investigation, supervised ML has been used to learn and mimic how a human analyst conducts investigations — asking questions, forming and revising hypotheses, and reaching conclusions — and can now carry out these investigations autonomously at speed and scale.

But what about tracking down the first traces of an attack? What about detecting the first indication that something is wrong?

The issue with utilising supervised ML in this area is that it is only as good as its historical training set — not with new things. As a result, it must be constantly updated, and the update must be distributed to all customers. This method also necessitates sending the customer's data to a centralised data lake in the cloud to be processed and analysed. When an organisation becomes aware of a threat, it is frequently too late.

As a result, organisations suffer from a lack of tailored protection, a high number of false positives, and missed detections because this approach overlooks one critical factor: the context of the specific organisation it is tasked with protecting.

However, there is still hope for defenders in the war of algorithms. Today, thousands of organisations utilise a different application of AI in cyber defence, taking a fundamentally different approach to defending against the entire attack spectrum — including indiscriminate and known attacks, as well as targeted and unknown attacks.

Unsupervised machine learning involves the AI learning the organisation rather than training it on what an attack looks like. In this scenario, the AI learns its surroundings from the inside out, down to the smallest digital details, understanding "normal" for the specific digital environment in which it is deployed in order to identify what is not normal.

This is AI that comprehends "you" in order to identify your adversary. It was once thought to be radical, but it now protects over 8,000 organisations worldwide by detecting, responding to, and even avoiding the most sophisticated cyberattacks.

Consider last year's widespread Hafnium attacks on Microsoft Exchange Servers. Darktrace's unmonitored ML identified and disrupted a series of new, unattributed campaigns in real time across many of its customer environments, with no prior threat intelligence associated with these attacks. Other organisations, on the other hand, were caught off guard and vulnerable to the threat until Microsoft revealed the attacks a few months later.

This is where unsupervised ML excels — autonomously detecting, investigating, and responding to advanced and previously unseen threats based on a unique understanding of the organization in question. Darktrace's AI research centre in Cambridge, UK, tested this AI technology against offensive AI prototypes. These prototypes, like ChatGPT, can create hyperrealistic and contextualised phishing emails and even choose a suitable sender to spoof and fire the emails.

The conclusions are clear: as attackers begin to weaponize AI for nefarious reasons, security teams will require AI to combat AI. Unsupervised machine learning will be critical because it learns on the fly, constructing a complex, evolving understanding of every user and device across the organisation. With this bird's-eye view of the digital business, unsupervised AI that recognises "you" will detect offensive AI as soon as it begins to manipulate data and will take appropriate action.

Offensive AI may be exploited for its speed, but defensive AI will also contribute to the arms race. In the war of algorithms, the right approach to ML could mean the difference between a strong security posture and disaster.

Vanuatu Officials Resort to Phone Books and Typewriters, One Month After Cyberattack


One month after a cyber-attack brought down Vanuatu's government servers and websites, frustrated officials were still using private Gmail accounts, personal laptops, pen and paper, and typewriters to run the government of Prime Minister Ishmael Kalsakau, who took office just a few days after the crash.

Malware attacks on state networks have slowed communication and coordination in the Pacific island nation of 314,000 people spread across 80 islands. To find government phone numbers, people turned to the online Yellow Pages or the hard copy phone directory. Some offices were operating solely through their Facebook and Twitter pages.

According to a financial analyst who works closely with the ministry's cybersecurity teams, the problems began about a month ago, when suspicious phishing activity was first detected in emails to the Ministry of Finance.

Almost all government email and website archives were destroyed by malware. Many departments were still storing data on local computer drives rather than web servers or the cloud. There has been no official word on whether or not the hackers demanded a ransom.

“It is taking longer for payments [from the Ministry of Finance] to get out, but … we are always on Vanuatu time anyway,” stated the financial analyst.

Government departments have struggled to stay connected, frustrating officials, with spontaneous solutions for communication between agencies and departments being implemented. Many government offices on the outer islands are experiencing significant service delays.

“It was chaos during the first few days but the entire government made alternative Gmail accounts or used their private emails. We are all using telephones and mobile phones for communication. But we are resilient in Vanuatu as a small country and can manage this,” said Olivia Finau, a communications officer in the Ministry of Climate Change. “Our department is communicating with the public more now with Facebook and Twitter, and we are actually getting more followers.”

The attack did not cause any disruptions to civilian infrastructures, such as airline or hotel websites. The majority of tourism and business has continued as usual through the busy Christmas and New Year's seasons.

According to the analyst, the current system can be improved by upgrading software and storing files in the cloud for management. However, local officials lack the necessary expertise and "require outside assistance."

The government had previously reported that the attack took place on November 5, but a computer technician at the Office of the Government's Chief Information Officer and a foreign diplomat confirmed to the Guardian that the crash took place on October 30.

In the early days of the crisis, some Vanuatu authorities blamed the problem on bad weather, which damaged the internet infrastructure.

However, the diplomat said: “We noticed there was a problem right away … our team recognized this as having the hallmarks of a cyber-attack, and not being caused by weather.”

Internal communication breakdowns in the days following the attack exacerbated matters. On November 4, Prime Minister Kalsakau formally took office, and on November 5, the government formally acknowledged the problem. 

The Australian government has offered assistance. "We sent a team in to assist with that disgraceful cyber-attack and response, and we are working through the process of bringing the government IT systems back up to speed," Pat Conroy, Australia's minister for international development and the Pacific, told Vanuatu Daily.

Cyber-attacks have wreaked havoc around the world in recent years, and Vanuatu's attack will serve as a warning to small Pacific nations with even weaker cybersecurity than Port Vila. Requests for comment were not returned by the Vanuatu Office of the Government Chief Information Officer (OGCIO).

Hackers Selling Ransomware Victims and Network Access Data for $4 Million


In accordance with a new report, hackers are selling access to 576 corporate networks worldwide for a total cumulative sales price of $4,000,000, fueling enterprise attacks. The findings come from the Israeli cyber-intelligence firm KELA, which published its Q3 2022 ransomware report, which showed stable activity in the initial access sales sector but a significant increase in the value of the offerings. Despite the fact that the number of network access sales remained roughly the same as in the previous two quarters, the total requested price has now reached $4,000,000. In comparison, the total value of initial access listings in Q2 2022 was $660,000, a decrease that coincided with the summer ransomware hiatus, which hampered demand. 
The Rise of Ransomware

IABs are hackers who sell access to corporate networks, typically through credential theft, webshells, or exploiting vulnerabilities in publicly exposed hardware.

After gaining access to the network, threat actors sell it to other hackers, who use it to steal valuable data, deploy ransomware, or engage in other malicious activity.

The reasons IABs do not use network access vary, from a lack of diverse intrusion skills to a preference not to risk increased legal trouble.

IABs continue to play an important role in the ransomware infection chain, despite the fact that they were sidelined last year when large ransomware gangs that operated as crime syndicates had their own IAB departments.

KELA analysts observed 110 threat actors posting 576 initial access offerings totaling $4,000,000 in the third quarter of 2022. The average selling price of these listings was $2,800, with a record median selling price of $1,350. KELA also witnessed a single access being offered for sale at the exorbitant price of $3,000,000. However, due to concerns about its authenticity, this listing was not included in the Q3 '22 stats and totals.

In Q3 2022, the top three IABs ran a large-scale business, selling between 40 and 100 accesses. According to hacking forum discussions and marketplace listing removal events, the average time to sell corporate access was only 1.6 days, while the majority were of  RDP and VPN types.

The United States was the most targeted country this quarter, accounting for 30.4% of all IAB offerings. This figure is comparable to the 39.1% share of ransomware attacks targeting US businesses in the third quarter.

Professional services, manufacturing, and technology led the targeted sectors with 13.4%, 10.8%, and 9.4%, respectively. Ransomware attacks are ranked similarly, emphasizing the link between the two. 

Because initial access brokers have become an essential component of the ransomware attack chain, protecting your network from intrusion is critical. To prevent the theft of corporate credentials, remote access servers should be placed behind VPNs, access to publicly exposed devices should be restricted, MFA should be enabled, and phishing training should be conducted.

Irresponsibile Malware Operators Squandered an "Undetectable" Windows Backdoor


Due to the malware operators' careless behaviour, a "completely undetectable" backdoor has been discovered. 

SafeBreach Labs claims to have discovered a brand new PowerShell backdoor that, when properly executed, grants attackers remote access to compromised endpoints. From there, the attackers could launch a variety of stage-two attacks, ranging from data stealers to ransomware (opens in new tab) and everything in between. 

Based on the report, an unknown threat actor created "ApplyForm[.]docm," a weaponized Word document. It contained a macro that, when activated, ran an unknown PowerShell script.

"The macro drops updater.vbs, creates a scheduled task pretending to be part of a Windows update, which will execute the updater.vbs script from a fake update folder under '%appdata%\local\Microsoft\Windows," the researchers explained

Updater.vbs would then execute a PowerShell script, granting the attacker remote access. The malware creates two PowerShell scripts, Script.ps1 and Temp.ps1, before running the scheduled task. The contents are concealed and placed in text boxes within the Word document, which is then saved in the fictitious update directory. As a result, antivirus software fails to identify the file as malicious.

Script.ps1 connects to the command and control server to assign a victim ID and receive additional instructions. Then it executes the Temp.ps1 script, which stores data and executes commands. The attackers made the mistake of issuing victim IDs in a predictable sequence, which allowed researchers to listen in on conversations with the C2 server.

While it is unknown who is behind the attack, the malicious Word document was uploaded from Jordan in late August of this year and has so far compromised approximately one hundred devices, most of which belong to people looking for new jobs. The Register reader described their encounter with the backdoor, offering advice to businesses looking to mitigate the damage that unknown backdoors can cause.

“I run an MSP and we were alerted to this on the 3rd of October. Client was a 330 seat charity and I did not link it to this specific article until I read it this morning."

"They have zero-trust [ZT] and Ringfencing so although the macro ran, it didn't make it outside of Excel,” they said. “A subtle reminder to incorporate a ZT solution in critical environments as it can stop zero-day stuff like this."

Health System Ransomware Attack Outlines Patients' Vulnerability


A crippling ransomware attack on the second-largest nonprofit health system in the United States demonstrates how many patients can be left in the dark when critical healthcare infrastructure fails. 

The attack earlier this month on CommonSpirit Health, which operates 142 hospitals in 21 states, resulted in IT being locked down, surgeries being delayed, and widespread disruptions in patient care. According to experts, it also left millions of patients waiting at least two weeks to learn if their personal information had been compromised. 

"We don't know what was disrupted," Israel Barak, chief information security officer at Boston-based Cybereason, told Axios.

For instance, patients don't know what sort of potential disruptions this has caused to certain services or procedures and they have no idea the extent their personal information might have been stolen. As consumers of these services we don't have a way to control our destiny or manage our risk," Barak added.

According to the Washington Post, the latest attack occurs as the Biden administration considers how to strengthen minimum cybersecurity standards in critical infrastructure such as health care. In accordance with a recent report from Crowdstrike, there has been a nearly 50% increase in interactive intrusion campaigns this year, with some of the most notable increases targeting health institutions.

As per Fierce Healthcare, 45 million people will be affected by healthcare attacks in 2021, up from 34 million in 2020.

State of play:

Experts believe health-care systems remain particularly vulnerable to threats. According to Barak, they are highly complex, relying on vulnerable supply chains and connections with numerous small clinics and vendors. With lives at stake, hospitals stand to lose more if they do not pay up.

However, health systems have fewer incentives to prioritise cybersecurity, according to Grant Elliott, CEO of Arlington, Virginia-based risk management platform Ostendio.

"There is a distinct lack of enforcement within health care generally, and as a result, there isn't a huge amount of consequence to these organisations for failing to build an effective security programme," Elliott explained.

According to a 2020 study conducted by CybelAngel, more than 45 million X-rays, CT scans, and other medical images could be accessed on unprotected, unencrypted, and password-less servers.

What's next?

CommonSpirit confirmed in a statement Monday it is still working to bring systems back online.

"As previously shared, we took immediate steps to protect our systems, contain the incident, begin an investigation, and maintain continuity of care. It will take some time before we can restore full functionality and we continue work to bring our systems up as quickly and safely as we can," CommonSpirit said in an emailed statement.

They said they could not provide additional information because of an ongoing investigation. A page on their website said there was "no impact to clinic, patient care and associated systems at Dignity Health, Virginia Mason Medical Center, TriHealth or Centura Health facilities."

According to Elliott, there is no industry consensus on the best way to handle a ransomware attack, and while there are reporting requirements, it can also take health systems some time to fully determine what information has been compromised.

However, he stated that the problem with many federal health care regulations for hospitals when it comes to data breaches is that they are not specific enough.

"Especially when you have something like a ransomware breach," he said. "Is this particular breach, they've simply frozen the assets and the organization can no longer access information which is its own concern? Or has the third party actor actually gained access to that information and downloaded it and threatening to release that information?"

While the impact of ransomware attacks on patient safety is the primary concern, the speed and specificity with which hospitals communicate the threat to patients is also critical.

"As an industry, there's a lot more we can do to regulate how healthcare data is managed," Barak concluded.

Researchers Recently Made the World's Websites Less Vulnerable to Hacking and Cyberattacks


An international team of researchers has created a scanning tool to reduce the vulnerability of websites to hacking and cyberattacks. The black box security assessment prototype, which was tested by engineers in Australia, Pakistan, and the UAE, outperforms existing web scanners, which collectively fail to detect the top ten weaknesses in web applications. 

Dr Yousef Amer, a mechanical and systems engineer at UniSA, is one of the co-authors of a new international paper that describes the tool's development in the wake of increasing global cyberattacks. Cybercrime cost the globe $6 trillion in 2021, representing a 300 percent increase in online criminal activity over the previous two years. 

Remote working, cloud-based platforms, malware, and phishing scams have resulted in massive data breaches, while the implementation of5G and Internet of Things (IoT) devices has made us more connected – and vulnerable – than ever. Dr. Yousef Amer and colleagues from Pakistan, the United Arab Emirates, and Western Sydney University highlight numerous security flaws in website applications that are costing organisations badly.

Because of the pervasive use of eCommerce, iBanking, and eGovernment sites, web applications have become a prime target for cybercriminals looking to steal personal and corporate information and disrupt business operations. Despite an anticipated $170 billion global outlay on internet security in 2022 against a backdrop of escalating and more severe cyberattacks, existing web scanners, according to Dr. Amer, fall far short of evaluating vulnerabilities.

“We have identified that most of the publicly available scanners have weaknesses and are not doing the job they should,” he says.

Almost 72% of businesses have experienced at least one serious security breach on their website, with vulnerabilities tripling since 2017. According to WhiteHat Security, a world leader in web application security, 86% of scanned web pages have on average 56% vulnerabilities. At least one of these is classified as critical. The researchers compared the top ten vulnerabilities to 11 publicly available web application scanners.

“We found that no single scanner is capable of countering all these vulnerabilities, but our prototype tool caters for all these challenges. It’s basically a one-stop guide to ensure 100 per cent website security. There’s a dire need to audit websites and ensure they are secure if we are to curb these breaches and save companies and governments millions of dollars,”Dr Amer stated.

SolarMarker Using Watering Hole Attacks and Fake Chrome Browser Updates, Infects Business Professionals


Researchers have uncovered the cyberattack group behind the SolarMarker malware, which is targeting a global tax consulting firm with offices in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, and Europe. It is using fake Chrome browser updates as part of watering hole attacks. This is a fresh approach for the group, replacing its previous method of SEO poisoning, also known as spamdexing. 

SolarMarker is a multistage malware that can steal autofill data, saved passwords, and credit card information from victims' browsers. According to an advisory issued on Friday by eSentire's Threat Response Unit (TRU), the threat group was observed exploiting vulnerabilities in a medical equipment manufacturer's website, which was built with the popular open-source content management system WordPress. The victim worked for a tax consulting firm and used Google to look up the manufacturer's name.

"This tricked the employee into downloading and executing SolarMarker, which was disguised as a Chrome update," the advisory noted.

"The fake browser update overlay design is based on what browser the victim is utilizing while visiting the infected website," the advisory added. "Besides Chrome, the user might also receive the fake Firefox or Edge update PHP page."

Considering that the TRU team has only witnessed a single infection of this vector type, it is unclear whether the SolarMarker group is testing new tactics or preparing for a larger campaign. Previous SolarMarker attacks used SEO poisoning to target people who searched online for free templates of popular business documents and business forms.

Increase Employee Awareness by Monitoring Endpoints

The TRU advisory outlines four key steps organisations can take to mitigate the impact of these types of attacks, including increasing employee awareness of automatic browser updates and avoiding downloading files from unknown sites.
"Threat actors research the kind of documents businesses look for and try to get in front of them with SEO," the advisory stated. "Only use trusted sources when downloading content from the internet, and avoid free and bundled software."

TRU also recommends more vigilant endpoint monitoring, which will necessitate more frequent rule updates to detect the latest campaigns, as well as enhanced threat-landscape monitoring to strengthen the organization's overall defence posture.

SolarMarker Campaigns Relaunched Following a Dormant Period

The.NET malware was discovered in 2020 and is typically distributed via a PowerShell installer, with data-gathering capabilities and a backdoor.

Sophos Labs discovered a number of active SolarMarker campaigns in October 2021 that followed a common pattern: cybercriminals used SEO techniques to place links to websites with Trojanized content in the search results of several search engines.

Menlo Security previously reported a SolarMarker campaign in October 2021 that used over 2,000 unique search terms to lure users to sites that then dropped malicious PDFs rigged with backdoors.

Extended DDoS Attack With 25.3B+ Requests Thwarted


On June 27, 2022, the cybersecurity firm Imperva mitigated a DDoS attack with over 25.3 billion requests. The attack, according to experts, sets a new record for Imperva's application DDoS mitigation solution. The attack, which targeted an unnamed Chinese telecommunications company, was notable for its duration, lasting more than four hours and peaking at 3.9 million RPS. 

“On June 27, 2022, Imperva mitigated a single attack with over 25.3 billion requests, setting a new record for Imperva’s application DDoS mitigation solution” reads the announcement. “While attacks with over one million requests per second (RPS) aren’t new, we’ve previously only seen them last for several seconds to a few minutes. On June 27, Imperva successfully mitigated a strong attack that lasted more than four hours and peaked at 3.9 million RPS.”

The Chinese telecommunications company had previously been targeted by large attacks, and experts added that two days later, a new DDoS attack hit its website, albeit for a shorter period of time. This record-breaking attack had an average rate of 1.8 million RPS. To send multiple requests over individual connections, threat actors used HTTP/2 multiplexing or combining multiple packets into one.

The attackers' technique is difficult to detect and can bring down targets with a limited number of resources.

“Since our automated mitigation solution is guaranteed to block DDoS in under three seconds, we estimate that the attack could have reached a much greater rate than our tracked peak of 3.9 million RPS.” continues Imperva.

This attack was launched by a botnet comprised of nearly 170,000 different IP addresses, including routers, security cameras, and compromised servers. The compromised devices can be found in over 180 countries, with the majority of them in the United States, Indonesia, and Brazil.

Akamai mitigated the largest DDoS attack ever against one of its European customers on Monday, September 12, 2022. The malicious traffic peaked at 704.8 Mpps and appears to be the work of the same threat actor as the previous record, which Akamai blocked in July and hit the same customer.

Montenegro's State Infrastructure Struck by Cyber Attack Officials


An unprecedented cyber attack on Montenegro's government digital infrastructure occurred, and the government promptly implemented measures to mitigate its impact. Montenegro immediately reported the attack to other NATO members. 

“Certain services were switched off temporarily for security reasons but the security of accounts belonging to citizens and companies and their data have not been jeopardised,” said Public Administration Minister Maras Dukaj. 

The attack, according to the Minister, began on Thursday night. The US embassy in Montenegro recommended US citizens limit their movement and travel within the country to the necessities and keep their travel documents up to date and easily accessible, fearing that the attack would disrupt government infrastructure for identifying people living in Montenegro and transportation. The National Security Agency issued a warning to critical infrastructure organisations.

“A persistent and ongoing cyber-attack is in process in Montenegro,” reported the website of the U.S. Embassy in the capital Podgorica. 

“The attack may include disruptions to the public utility, transportation (including border crossings and airport), and telecommunication sectors.” 

EPCG, the state-owned power utility, has switched to manual handling to avoid any potential damage, according to Milutin Djukanovic, president of EPCG. The company decided to temporarily disable some of its clients' services as a safety measure. The government believes the attack was carried out by a nation-state actor.

“Outgoing Prime Minister Dritan Abazovic called a session of the National Security Council for Friday evening to discuss the attack. Abazovic said it was politically motivated following the fall of his government last week,” reported Reuters.

Previous Attacks

Montenegro was targeted by the Russia-linked hacker group APT28 in June 2017 after it officially joined the NATO alliance, amidst strong opposition from the Russian government, which threatened retaliation.

Montenegro experienced massive and prolonged cyberattacks against government and media websites in February 2017, for the second time in a few months. FireEye researchers who analysed the attacks discovered malware and exploits associated with the notorious Russia-linked APT group known as APT28 (aka Fancy Bear, Pawn Storm, Strontium, Sofacy, Sednit, and Tsar Team).

Another massive attack was launched against the country's institutions during the October 2016 elections, sparking speculation that the Russian Government was involved. At the time, hackers launched spear phishing attacks against Montenegro, using weaponized documents related to a NATO secretary meeting and a visit by a European army unit to the country.

The hackers distributed the GAMEFISH backdoor (also known as Sednit, Seduploader, JHUHUGIT, and Sofacy), a malware used only by the APT28 group in previous attacks. Marshal Sir Stuart Peach, Chairman of NATO's Military Committee (MC), announced the Alliance's effort to counter Russian hybrid attacks in January 2020.

The term "hybrid warfare" refers to a military strategy that combines political warfare, irregular warfare, and cyberwarfare with other methods of influencing, such as fake news, diplomacy, lawfare, and foreign electoral intervention.

Researchers Discover Kimusky Infra Targeting South Korean Politicians and Diplomats


Kimusky, a North Korean nation-state group, has been linked to a new wave of nefarious activities targeting political and diplomatic entities in its southern counterpart in early 2022. 

The cluster was codenamed GoldDragon by Russian cybersecurity firm Kaspersky, with infection chains resulting to the implementation of Windows malware designed to file lists, user keystrokes, and stored web browser login credentials. South Korean university professors, think tank researchers, and government officials are among the potential victims. 

Kimsuky, also known as Black Banshee, Thallium, and Velvet Chollima, is a prolific North Korean advanced persistent threat (APT) group that targets entities globally, but with a primary focus on South Korea, to gather intelligence on various topics of interest to the regime.

The group, which has been active since 2012, has a history of using social engineering tactics, spear-phishing, and watering hole attacks to obtain sensitive information from victims.

Late last month, cybersecurity firm Volexity linked the actor to an intelligence-gathering mission aimed at siphon email content from Gmail and AOL using Sharpext, a malicious Chrome browser extension.

The latest campaign employs a similar tactic, with the attack sequence initiated by spear-phishing messages containing macro-embedded Microsoft Word documents supposedly comprising content related to geopolitical issues in the region. Alternative initial access routes are also said to use HTML Application (HTA) and Compiled HTML Help (CHM) files as decoys in order to compromise the system.

Whatever method is used, the initial access is followed by a remote server dropping a Visual Basic Script that is orchestrated to fingerprint the machine and retrieve additional payloads, including an executable capable of exfiltrating sensitive information.

The attack is unique in that it sends the victim's email address to the command-and-control (C2) server if the recipient clicks on a link in the email to download additional documents. If the request does not include the expected email address, a harmless document is returned.

To complicate matters even further, the first-stage C2 server forwards the victim's IP address to another VBS server, which compares it to an incoming request generated after the target opens the bait document. The two C2 servers' "victim verification methodology" ensures that the VBScript is distributed only when the IP address checks are successful, indicating a highly targeted approach.

"The Kimsuky group continuously evolves its malware infection schemes and adopts novel techniques to hinder analysis. The main difficulty in tracking this group is that it's tough to acquire a full-infection chain," Kaspersky researcher Seongsu Park concluded.

Researchers: AiTM Attack are Targeting Google G-Suite Enterprise Users


A large-scale adversary-in-the-middle (AiTM) phishing campaign targeting enterprise users of Microsoft email services has also targeted Google Workspace users. 

"This campaign specifically targeted chief executives and other senior members of various organizations which use [Google Workspace]," Zscaler researchers Sudeep Singh and Jagadeeswar Ramanukolanu detailed in a report published this month.

The AiTM phishing attacks are said to have begun in mid-July 2022, using a similar method to a social engineering campaign designed to steal users' Microsoft credentials and even circumvent multi-factor authentication. 

The low-volume Gmail AiTM phishing campaign also includes the use of compromised emails from CEOs to conduct additional social engineering, with the attacks also utilizing several compromised domains as an intermediate URL redirector to take victims to the final landing page.

Attack chains entail sending password expiry emails to potential targets that encompass an embedded malicious link to supposedly "extend your access," tapping which takes the recipient to Google Ads and Snapchat redirect pages that load the phishing page URL.

Aside from open redirect abuse, a second variant of the attacks uses infected sites to host a Base64-encoded version of the next-stage redirector in the URL, as well as the victim's email address. This intermediate redirector is a piece of JavaScript code that directs you to a Gmail phishing page.

In one case, the redirector page used in the Microsoft AiTM phishing attack on July 11, 2022, was revised to take the user to a Gmail AiTM phishing page, connecting the two campaigns.

"There was also an overlap of infrastructure, and we even identified several cases in which the threat actor switched from Microsoft AiTM phishing to Gmail phishing using the same infrastructure," the researchers said.

Overall, the findings suggest that multi-factor authentication safeguards alone are insufficient to defend against advanced phishing attacks, necessitating that users scrutinize URLs before entering credentials and avoid opening attachments or clicking on links in emails sent from untrusted or unknown sources.

‘Evil PLC’ Could Turn PLCs Into Attack Vectors


When one thinks of someone hacking a programmable logic controller, one usually think of the PLC as the end objective of the assault. Adversaries use other systems to get at what will eventually allow them to cause industrial damage. 

However, a Claroty Team 82 DefCon presentation asks the following question: what if someone exploited a PLC as a vector rather than the destination? The researchers feel that the "Evil PLC" attack scenario is novel: infecting every engineer who interfaces with a PLC with malicious malware. 

Claroty revealed a series of 11 additional vendor-specific vulnerabilities that would allow the attack as proof of concept. These flaws have been discovered in Ovarro TBOX, B&R (ABB) X20 System, Schneider Electric Modicon M340 and M580, GE MarkVIe, Rockwell Micro Control Systems, Emerson PACSystems and Xinje XDPPro platforms. All but the Emerson were issued CVEs. Claroty came up with the notion after trying to learn more about the opponents that attack their honeypots.

“We asked ourselves, how can we actively attack the attackers? We don't know anything about them. We cannot find them,” said Claroty director of research Sharon Brizinov. “And then we kind of had a eureka moment and we thought, okay, what if the PLC was to be weaponized?”

Claroty used a ZipSlip attack against vendors (Emerson, Ovarro, B&R, GE, and Xinje), a heap overflow against Schneider, and a deserialization attack against Rockwell to create an Evil PLC. Evil PLC, according to Claroty, would be suited for two assault scenarios. The first scenario would be if the PLC was the only entry point into a secure facility. Waiting for an engineer to connect to the PLC allows the attacker to infect the engineer's workstation. This might be sped up by encouraging an early inspection using the newfound access to the PLC.

“Once the attacker weaponized the PLC, maybe they deliberately cause a fault on the PLC. The engineer would be lured to the PLC to check what's going on with it,” said Brizinov. 

Another possibility is to take use of the large number of PLCs maintained by outside professionals. One engineer is linked to one PLC could spread malicious code across several enterprises. 

“Usually PLCs are the crown jewel. When we're talking about classic attack vectors in ICS domains we're always seeing the PLC as the endpoint, the end goal; but if we're playing with those ideas and shifting our thoughts a bit, we can we can get to new ways of how to defend and attack both networks,” Brizinov said. 

Alert! Large-Scale AiTM Attacks Targeting Enterprise Users


A new large-scale phishing effort has been reported that use adversary-in-the-middle (AitM) tactics to circumvent security safeguards and attack business email accounts. 

Zscaler researchers Sudeep Singh and Jagadeeswar Ramanukolanu said in a Tuesday report, "It uses an adversary-in-the-middle (AitM) attack technique capable of bypassing multi-factor authentication. The campaign is specifically designed to reach end users in enterprises that use Microsoft's email services." 

Fintech, lending, insurance, energy, manufacturing, and federal credit union verticals are major objectives in the United States, United Kingdom, New Zealand, and Australia. This is not the first time a phishing attack has been identified. Microsoft revealed this month that over 10,000 businesses had been targeted by AitM tactics to compromise accounts protected by multi-factor authentication since September 2021 (MFA). 

The ongoing campaign, which began in June 2022, starts with an invoice-themed email addressed to targets that include an HTML file with a phishing URL placed within it. Opening the attachment in a web browser takes the email recipient to a phishing website posing as a Microsoft Office login page, but not before fingerprinting the infected system to assess whether the victim is the targeted target. 

AitM phishing attacks go beyond standard phishing tactics aimed to steal credentials from unsuspecting users, primarily when MFA is implemented - a security barrier that prohibits the attacker from login into the account using just the stolen credentials. To get around this, the rogue landing page created using a phishing kit acts as a proxy, capturing and relaying all traffic between the client (i.e., victim) and the email server. 

"The kits intercept the HTML content received from the Microsoft servers, and before relaying it back to the victim, the content is manipulated by the kit in various ways as needed, to make sure the phishing process works," the researchers stated. 

This also includes replacing any links to Microsoft domains with identical connections to the phishing domain to guarantee that the back-and-forth with the phoney website continues throughout the session. According to Zscaler, the attacker manually logged into the account eight minutes after the credential theft, reading emails and verifying the user's personal information. 

Furthermore, compromised email inboxes are often used to send further phishing emails as part of the same campaign to conduct business email compromise (BEC) frauds. The researchers noted, "Even though security features such as multi-factor authentication (MFA) add an extra layer of security, they should not be considered as a silver bullet to protect against phishing attacks. With the use of advanced phishing kits (AiTM) and clever evasion techniques, threat actors can bypass both traditional as well as advanced security solutions."

US Government Alerts Americans of Rising SMS Phishing Attacks


The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has cautioned Americans about an increase in SMS (Short Message Service) phishing attacks aimed at stealing their personal information and money. Such attacks are also known as smishing or robotexts (as the FCC refers to them), and the fraudsters behind them may utilise a variety of enticements to fool you into disclosing sensitive information. 

"The FCC tracks consumer complaints – rather than call or text volume – and complaints about unwanted text messages have risen steadily in recent years from approximately 5,700 in 2019, 14,000 in 2020, 15,300 in 2021, to 8,500 through June 30, 2022," the US communications watchdog's Robocall Response Team said [PDF]. 

"In addition, some independent reports estimate billions of robotexts each month – for example, RoboKiller estimates consumers received over 12 billion robotexts in June." 

Smishing baits reported to the FCC by American customers include statements concerning unpaid bills, package delivery concerns, bank account problems, or police enforcement activities. Links sending users to landing pages imitating bank websites and requesting them to authenticate a transaction or unlock frozen credit cards are among the most clever and persuasive baits used in text message phishing attempts. 

Phishing SMS messages may also be faked to make it look that the sender is someone you're more likely to trust, such as the IRS or a company one is familiar with. While some attackers will try to steal financial information, others are less fussy and will collect whatever personal information they can get their hands on to use in later frauds or sell to other bad actors. The FCC suggests the following methods to protect against SMS phishing attacks:
  • Do not respond to texts from unknown numbers or any others that appear suspicious.
  • Never share sensitive personal or financial information by text.
  • Be on the lookout for misspellings or texts that originate with an email address.
  • Think twice before clicking any links in a text message. If a friend sends you a text with a suspicious link that seems out of character, call them to ensure they weren't hacked.
  • If a business sends you a text you weren't expecting, look up their number online and call them back.
  • Remember that government agencies almost never initiate contact by phone or text.
  • Report texting scam attempts to your wireless service provider by forwarding unwanted texts to 7726 (or "SPAM").
"If you think you're the victim of a texting scam, report it immediately to your local law enforcement agency and notify your wireless service provider and financial institutions where you have accounts," the FCC added.

Cyber-attacks on Port of Los Angeles Doubled Since Pandemic


According to recent research, one of the world's biggest ports has witnessed an unusual spike in cyber-attacks since the outbreak began. The Port of Los Angeles' executive director, Gene Seroka, told the BBC World Service over the weekend that the facility receives roughly 40 million attacks every month. 

"Our intelligence shows the threats are coming from Russia and parts of Europe. We have to stay steps ahead of those who want to hurt international commerce. We must take every precaution against potential cyber-incidents, particularly those that could threaten or disrupt the flow of cargo,” he further added. 

Ransomware, malware, spear phishing, and credential harvesting attacks appear to be among the threats aimed against the facility, which is the busiest in the Western Hemisphere. The goal seems to harm the US economy in many situations, however, profits through extortion and data theft will also be a factor. 

Such dangers, if not adequately managed, can potentially exacerbate COVID-era supply chain snarls. Seroka said that port blockages will not be cleared completely until next year, even though the number of container ships waiting more than two days to offload has reportedly reduced from 109 in January to 20 today. 

"The past two years have proven the vital role that ports hold to our nation's critical infrastructure, supply chains and economy. It's paramount we keep the systems as secure as possible," Seroka expressed. 

The challenge is so acute that the port established one of the world's first Cyber Resilience Centers in collaboration with the FBI. It provides a single site for port stakeholders such as shipping corporations to receive, evaluate, and exchange threat intelligence. 

Ports have become such a popular target for cyber-criminals, particularly those aiming to undermine operations and extort businesses, due to their strategic significance to global trade.

Alert WordPress Admins! Uninstall the Modern WPBakery Plugin Immediately


WordPress administrators have been cautioned to uninstall a problematic plugin or risk a total site takeover. This threat is associated with a plugin that is no longer in use: Modern WPBakery page builder extensions. CVE-2021-24284 is a vulnerability in the plugin that allows "unauthenticated arbitrary file upload through the 'uploadFontIcon' AJAX action." 

As a result, attackers might upload malicious PHP scripts to the WordPress site, resulting in remote code execution and site takeover. There has been a significant surge in attacks due to this defunct WordPress relic. 

Researchers detected "many vulnerable endpoints" in Modern WPBakery in 2021, which might lead to the injection of malicious JavaScript or even the deletion of arbitrary data. The goal of the game this time is to upload rogue PHP files and then inject malicious JavaScript into the site. 

Approximately 1.6 million sites have been examined for the presence of the plugin by malicious actors, and current estimates imply that 4,000 to 8,000 websites are still hosting the plugin. Check and delete immediately. 

The current recommendation is to search for the plugin and then uninstall it as quickly as possible. It has been entirely abandoned, and no security updates will be sent. If anyone has it installed, it's only a matter of time until the exploiters find their way to your Modern WPBakery hosting website and begin collecting information. It's advised to as soon as possible, remove this out-of-date invitation to site-wide compromise.

Tor Browser 11.5 Adds Censorship Detection & Circumvention


Tor Project's flagship anonymizing browser has been upgraded to make it simpler for users to avoid government attempts to prohibit its usage in various locations. According to the non-profit organisation that controls the open source software, Tor Browser 11.5 would change the user experience of connecting to Tor from strongly censored locations. 

It replaces a "manual and confusing procedure" in which users have to maintain their own Tor Network settings to figure out how to utilise a bridge to unblock Tor in their location. Because various bridge settings may be required in different countries, the Tor Project stated that the manual effort placed an undue hardship on restricted users. 

Connection Assist is its answer, and it will automatically apply the bridge configuration that should perform best in a user's exact location. China, Russia, Belarus, and Turkmenistan are among the countries that have blocked the Tor Network. Volunteers from these and other impacted nations are encouraged to apply to be alpha testers so that their feedback may be shared with the community. 

The Tor Project has revised its Tor Network settings to improve the user experience for people who still want to manually configure their software. There is also a new HTTPS-only default option for users, which protects consumers by encrypting communication between their system and the web servers it communicates with. 

“This change will help protect our users from SSL stripping attacks by malicious exit relays, and strongly reduces the incentive to spin up exit relays for man-in-the-middle attacks in the first place,” it stated. 

Although the Tor Browser is often linked with illicit black web browsing, it is also a useful tool for activists, journalists, dissidents, and NGO workers working under harsh government regimes.

Homeland Security Warns Log4j’s 'Endemic' Threats for Years to Come


The US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) published the Cyber Safety Review Board's (CSRB) first report into the December 2021 Log4j incident, when a variety of vulnerabilities with this Java-based logging framework were revealed, this week. 

The report's methodology comprised 90 days of interviews and information requests with around 80 organisations and individuals, including software developers, end users, security specialists, and businesses. 

This was done to ensure that the board met with a wide range of representatives and understand the complexities of how different attack surfaces are constructed and defended. According to the report, although standardised and reusable "building blocks" are essential for developing and expanding software, they also allow any possible vulnerability to be mistakenly included in multiple software packages, putting any organization that uses those programs at risk. 

According to the report, while Log4j remains dangerous, the government-wide approach helped tone down the vulnerability. The board also noted the need for extra financing to help the open-source software security community, which is primarily comprised of volunteers. 

Industry experts, such as Michael Skelton, senior director of security operations at Bugcrowd, said of Log4J: “Dealing with it is a marathon, one that will take years to resolve. Java and Log4j are prevalent everywhere, not only in core projects but in dependencies that other projects rely on, making detection and mitigation not as simple an exercise as it may be with other vulnerabilities.” 

John Bambenek, the principal threat hunter at Netenrich, was more critical of the report’s timing, believing that “anyone still vulnerable is highly unlikely to read this report or in much of a position to do anything about it if they did. Most of the American economy is small to medium businesses that almost always never have a CISO and likely not even a CIO. Until we find ways to make the public without security budgets safe, no high-level list of best practices will move the ball significantly.” 

The CSRB report went on to state that, thankfully, it is unaware of any large Log4j-based attacks on critical infrastructure assets or systems, and that efforts to hack Log4j happened at a lesser level than many experts expected. 

The paper, however, emphasises that the Log4j incident is "not over" and will continue to be an "endemic vulnerability" for many years, with considerable risk persisting. The research concluded with 19 actionable recommendations for government and business, which were divided into four divisions. They were as follows:
  • Address Continued Risks of Log4j
  • Drive Existing Best Practices for Security Hygiene
  • Build a Better Software Ecosystem
  • Investments in the Future

Predatory Sparrow's Assault on Iran's Steel Industry


Predatory Sparrow, also known as Gonjeshke Darande, has accepted full responsibility for last month's cyberattacks on various Iranian steel factories and has now posted the first batch of top-secret papers on its Twitter account. 

The group distributed a cache of around 20 terabytes of data. It includes company paperwork revealing the steel plants' links to Iran's strong Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps. The group stated in a series of tweets in both English and Persian that the cache was only the beginning of what will be disclosed. 

While claiming responsibility for the June 27 attack, the group also posted a photo and video purportedly showing damage to equipment at the state-owned Khouzestan Steel Company, one of Iran's biggest steel manufacturing factories. Although both the steel firm and the Iranian government denied any serious impact, sources suggest that the attack hampered industrial operations. 

The Predatory Sparrow group explained that the attacks were carried out with caution in order to safeguard innocent people. The group also stated that the hacks were in reaction to the Islamic Republic's actions. The group goes on to say that the enterprises were targeted by international sanctions and that they will continue to operate despite the limitations. 

Regardless of Predatory Sparrow's insistence that the attacks are autonomous, it is suspected that the Israeli government is supporting the hacktivist group, given the sophistication of the operation, the nature of the attacks, and the message preceding, during, and after what looks to be an attack. Aside from the steel facilities attack, the Predatory Sparrow group has claimed responsibility for other digital attacks on key Iranian targets, including the one that crippled Iran's state-controlled gasoline distribution in October 2021 and the one that hit the Iranian railway system in August 2021. While the Iranian government continues to deny the group's accusations, each cyber strike raises new concerns.