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Microsoft: Hackers Exploring New Attack Techniques

Malicious actors are adapting their strategies, techniques, and procedures in response to Microsoft's move to automatically block Excel 4.0 (XLM or XL4) and Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) macros across Office programs (TTPs).

Malicious Microsoft Office document attachments sent in phishing emails often contain VBA and XL4 Macros, two short programs designed to automate repetitive processes in Microsoft Office applications that threat actors use to load, drop, or install malware.

Sherrod DeGrippo, vice president of threat research and detection at Proofpoint, stated "the threat landscape has changed significantly as a result of threat actors shifting away from directly disseminating macro-based email attachments."

The change was made as a result of Microsoft's announcement that it will stop the widespread exploitation of the Office subsystem by making it more challenging to activate macros and automatically banning them by default.

New tactics 

Use of ISO, RAR, and Windows Shortcut (LNK) attachments to get around the block has multiplied by 66%, according to security firm Proofpoint, which calls this activity 'one of the largest email threat landscape shifts in recent history.' Actors spreading the Emotet malware are also involved in this activity.

The use of container files like ISOs, ZIPs, and RARs has also increased rapidly, increasing by about 175 percent. These are rapidly being used as initial access mechanisms by threat actors, between October 2021 and June 2022, the use of ISO files surged by over 150 percent.

Since October 2021, the number of campaigns including LNK files has climbed by 1,675%. Proofpoint has been tracking a variety of cybercriminal and advanced persistent threat (APT) actors who frequently use LNK files.

Emotet, IcedID, Qakbot, and Bumblebee are some of the famous malware families disseminated using these new techniques.

According to Proofpoint, the usage of HTML attachments employing the HTML smuggling approach to put a botnet on the host system has also increased significantly. Their distribution volumes, however, are still quite limited.

Finally, with a restricted range of potential threats to assess, email security systems are now more likely to detect hazardous files.

Google Drive & Dropbox Targeted by Russian Hackers

The Russian state-sponsored hacking collective known as APT29 has been attributed to a new phishing campaign that takes advantage of legitimate cloud services like Google Drive and Dropbox to deliver malicious payloads on compromised systems.

In recent efforts targeting Western diplomatic stations and foreign embassies globally between early May and June 2022, the threat group APT29 also known as Cozy Bear or Nobelium has embraced this new strategy. However, the phishing documents included a link to a malicious HTML file that was used as a dropper for other harmful files, including a Cobalt Strike payload, to enter the target network.

Google and DropBox were alerted about the operation by Palo Alto Networks, and they took measures to restrict it. Organizations and governments have been cautioned by Unit 42 researchers to maintain a high state of alert. Organizations should be cautious about their capacity to identify, inspect, and block undesirable traffic to legitimate cloud storage providers in light of APT 29's new methods.

APT29, also known as Cozy Bear, Cloaked Ursa, or The Dukes, is a cyber espionage organization that seeks to gather information that supports Russia's geopolitical goals. It also carried out the SolarWinds supply-chain hack, which resulted in the compromising of several US federal agencies in 2020.

The use of cloud services like Dropbox and Google Drive to mask their activity and download further cyberespionage into target locations is what has changed in the most recent versions. According to reports, the attack's second version, seen in late May 2022, was further modified to host the HTML dropper in Dropbox.

According to reports, the attack's second version, seen in late May 2022, was further modified to host the HTML dropper in Dropbox.

The findings also line up with a recent statement from the Council of the European Union that "condemns this appalling behavior in cyberspace" and highlights the rise in hostile cyber actions carried out by Russian threat actors.

In a news release, the EU Council stated that "this increase in harmful cyber actions, in the context of the war against Ukraine, presents intolerable risks of spillover effects, misinterpretation, and possible escalation."







XFiles Malware Exploits Follina, Expands ItsAttacks

What is XFiles?

The X-Files info stealer malware has put a new vulnerability in its systems to exploit CVE-2022-30190- Follina, and attack targeted systems with malicious payloads. A cybersecurity firm said that the new malware uses Follina to deploy the payload, run it, and take control of the targeted computer. "In the case of the XFiles malware, researchers at Cyberint noticed that recent campaigns delivering the malware use Follina to download the payload, execute it, and also create persistence on the target machine," says Bleeping Computers.  

How is Follina infected? 

•The malware, sent in the victims' spam mail, consists of an OLE object that directs to an HTML file on an external resource that has JavaScript code, which exploits Follina. 

•After the code is executed, it gets a base64-encoded string that contains PowerShell commands to make a presence in the Windows startup directory and deploy the malware. 

•The second-stage module, "ChimLacUpdate.exe," consists of an AES decryption key and a hard-coded encryption shellcode. An API call decodes it and deploys it in the same running process. 

•After infection, XFiles starts normal info stealer malware activities like targeting passwords and history stored in web browsers, cookies, taking screenshots, and cryptocurrency wallets, and look for Telegram and Discord credentials. 

•The files are locally stored in new directories before they are exfiltrated via Telegram. 

The XFiles is becoming more active 

• A cybersecurity agency said that XFiles has expanded by taking in new members and initiating new projects. 

• A project launched earlier this year by Xfiles is called the 'Punisher Miner.' 

• However, it's an irony that a new mining tool will charge $9, the same as how much XFiles costs for a month of renting the info stealer. 

CyWare Social says "it appears that the XFiles gang is expanding and becoming more prolific. The gang is recruiting talented malware authors, becoming stronger, and thus providing their users with more readymade tools that do not require experience or coding knowledge. Successful incorporation of the Follina-exploiting document increases the chances of infection and consequently increases the success rate of attacks."

Cybercriminals Impersonate Government Employees to Spread IRS Tax Frauds

 

At end of the 2021 IRS income tax return deadline in the United States, cybercriminals were leveraging advanced tactics in their phishing kits, which in turn granted them a high delivery success rate of spoofed e-mails with malicious attachments. 

On April 18th, 2022, a notable campaign was detected which invested phishing e-mails imitating the IRS, and in particular one of the industry vendors who provide services to government agencies which include e-mailing, Cybercriminals chose specific seasons when taxpayers are all busy with taxes and holiday preparations, which is why one should be extra cautious at these times.

The impersonated IT services vendor is widely employed by key federal agencies, including the Department of Homeland Security, as well as various state and local government websites in the United States. The detected phishing e-mail alerted victims about outstanding IRS payments, which should be paid via PayPal, and included an HTML attachment which looked like an electronic invoice. Notably, the e-mail has no URLs and was delivered to the victim's mailbox without being tagged as spam. The e-mail was delivered through many "hops" based on the inspected headers, predominantly using network hosts and domains registered in the United States.

It is worth mentioning that none of the affected hosts had previously been 'blacklisted,' nor had any evidence of bad IP or anomalous domain reputation at the time of identification. The bogus IRS invoice's HTML attachment contains JS-based obfuscation code. Further investigation revealed embedded scenarios which detected the victim's IP (using the GEO2IP module, which was placed on a third-party WEB-site), most likely to choose targets or filter by region. 

After the user views the HTML link, the phishing script shall prompt the user to enter personal credentials, impersonating the Office 365 authentication process with an interactive form.

The phishing-kit checks access to the victim's e-mail account through IMAP protocol once the user enters personal credentials. The actors were utilizing the "supportmicrohere[.]com" domain relying on the de-obfuscated JS content. 

Threat actors most likely tried to imitate Microsoft Technical Support and deceive users by utilizing a domain with similar spelling. The script intercepts the user's credentials and sends them to the server using a POST request. Login and password are sent to the jbdelmarket[.]com script through HTTP POST. A series of scripts to examine the IP address of the victim is hosted on the domain jbdelmarket[.]com. The phishing e-header emails include multiple domain names with SPF and DKIM records. 

A Return-Path field in the phishing e-mail was set as another e-mail controlled by the attackers which gather data about e-mails that were not sent properly. The Return-Path specifies how and where rejected emails will be processed, and it is used to process bounces from emails.

Spyware Infests the Microsoft Store with Classic Game Pirates

 



Electron Bot, a malware which infiltrated Microsoft's Official Store via clones of popular games like Subway Surfer and Temple Run, infected approximately 5,000 machines in Sweden, Israel, Spain, and Bermuda. 

Check Point discovered and studied the malware, which is a backdoor to give attackers unlimited control over infected PCs, allowing for remote command processing and real-time interactions. The threat actors' purpose is social media promotion and fraud, which is done by gaining control of social media profiles where Electron Bot allows for new account registration, commenting, and liking. 

An initial Electron Bot variant was uploaded to the Microsoft Store as "Album by Google Photos," published by a faked Google LLC business, and the operation was identified at the end of 2018. The malware, which is named after the Electron programming language, can mimic natural browsing behavior and perform acts as if it were a real website visitor. It accomplishes this by opening a new hidden browser window with the Electron framework's Chromium engine, setting the relevant HTTP headers, rendering the requested HTML page, and lastly performing mouse actions.

Threat actors develop rogue websites and employ search engine optimization strategies to push them to the top of the search results in an SEO poisoning campaign. SEO poisoning is also offered as a service to increase other websites' ranks, in addition to boosting bad sites' SEO rankings. The infection chain starts when the user downloads one of the infected apps from the Microsoft Store, which is otherwise a reliable source of software. When the application is launched, a JavaScript dropper is dynamically loaded in the side to fetch and install the Electron Bot payload. 

The malware links to the C2 (Electron Bot[.]s3[.]eu-central-1[.]amazonaws. com or 11k[.]online), acquires its configuration, and implements any commands in the pipeline at the next system startup. The JS files dumped on the machine's RAM are relatively short and appear to be benign because the major scripts are loaded flexibly at run time. 

Fraud, fleece wear, and financial trojans abound in official app shops. The Xenomorph banking malware was recently found by ThreatFabric, and the most humorous has to be Vultur, a trojan hidden inside a fully functional two-factor authentication (2FA) app which recently infected 10,000 people who downloaded it from Google Play. 

The successful entry of Electron Bot into Microsoft's official app store is only the most recent example of how consumers throw precaution into the breeze whenever a user views a bright new toy on the apps.

Credit Cards Were Forged from a Prominent e-Cigarette Store

 

Since being breached, Element Vape, a famous online retailer of e-cigarettes including vaping kits, is harboring a credit card skimmer on its website. In both retail and online storefronts in the United States and Canada, this retailer provides e-cigarettes, vaping equipment, e-liquids, and Synthetic drugs.
 
Its website Element Vape is uploading a potentially Malicious file from either a third-party website that appears to be a credit card stealer. Magecart refers to threat actors who use credit card cybercriminals on eCommerce sites by infiltrating scripts. 

On numerous shop webpages, beginning with the homepage, a mystery base64-encoded script may be seen on pages 45-50 of the HTML source code. For an unknown period of time, the computer worm has so far been present on ElementVape.com. 

This code was gone as of February 5th, 2022, and before, according to a Wayback Machine review of ElementVape.com. As a result, the infection appears to have occurred more recently, probably after the date and before today's detection. When decoded, it simply fetches the appropriate JavaScript file from a third-party site :

/weicowire[.]com/js/jquery/frontend.js

When this script was decoded and examined, it was apparent – the collection of credit card and invoicing information from clients during the checkout. The script looks for email addresses, payment card details, phone numbers, and billing addresses (including street and ZIP codes). 

The attacker acquires these credentials via a predefined Telegram address in the script which is disguised. The code also has anti-reverse-engineering features which check if it's being run in a sandbox or with "devtools" to prevent it from being examined.

It's unclear how the backend code of ElementVape.com was altered in the first place to allow the malicious script to enter. Reportedly, this isn't the first instance Element Vape's security has been breached. Users reported getting letters from Element Vape in 2018 indicating the company had a data breach so the "window of penetration between December 6, 2017, and June 27, 2018, might have revealed users" personal details to threat actors. 

Threat Advert is a New Service Strategy Invented by AsyncRAT

 

AsyncRAT is a Remote Access Tool (RAT) that uses a secure encrypted connection to monitor and control other machines remotely. It is an open platform distributed processing tool but it has the potential to be used intentionally because it includes features like keylogging, remote desktop command, and other functionalities that could destroy the victim's PC. Furthermore, AsyncRAT can be distributed using a variety of methods, including spear-phishing, malvertising, exploit kits, and other means. 

Morphisec has detected a new, advanced campaign distribution that has been successfully eluding the radar of several security providers, thanks to the breach prevention using Moving Target Defense technology.

Potential hackers are spreading AsyncRAT to targeted machines with a simple email phishing method with an Html attachment. AsyncRAT is meant to remotely monitor and manipulate attacked systems through a protected, encrypted connection. This campaign ran for 4 to 5 months, with the lowest detection rates according to VirusTotal. 

Victims received the email notification with an HTML attachment in the manner of a receipt: Receipt-digits>.html in many cases. When the victim opens the receipt, users are sent to a webpage where a user must store a downloaded ISO file. The user believes it is a routine file download that will pass via all port and network security scanning channels. Surprisingly, this is not true. 

The ISO download, in fact, is created within the user's browser by the JavaScript code hidden within the HTML receipt file, rather than being downloaded from a remote server. 

To reduce the possibility of infection by AsyncRAT, users must follow the following steps:
  • Updating antivirus fingerprints and engines is a must. 
  • Enable automatic updates to ensure that the operating system is up to date with the most recent security fixes. 
  • Email addresses should not be made public on the internet. 
  • Don't click email attachments with strange-looking extensions. When opening any email attachment, especially the one from unknown senders, proceed with caution.
  • Exercise caution while opening emails with generic subject lines. 

Phishing Attackers Spotted Using Morse Code to Avoid Detection

 

Microsoft has revealed details of a deceptive year-long social engineering campaign in which the operators changed their obfuscation and encryption mechanisms every 37 days on average, including using Morse code, in an attempt to hide their tracks and steal user credentials. 

One of numerous tactics employed by the hackers, who Microsoft did not name, to disguise harmful software was Morse Code, a means of encoding characters with dots and dashes popularised by telegraph technology. It serves as a reminder that, despite their complexity, modern offensive and defensive cyber measures are generally based on the simple principle of hiding and cracking code. 

The phishing attempts take the shape of invoice-themed lures that imitate financial-related business transactions, with an HTML file ("XLS.HTML") attached to the emails. The ultimate goal is to collect usernames and passwords, which are then utilized as an initial point of access for subsequent infiltration attempts. 

The attachment was compared to a "jigsaw puzzle" by Microsoft, who explained that individual pieces of the HTML file are designed to appear innocuous and slip by the endpoint security software, only to expose their true colors when decoded and joined together. The hackers that carried out the attack were not identified by the company.

"This phishing campaign exemplifies the modern email threat: sophisticated, evasive, and relentlessly evolving," Microsoft 365 Defender Threat Intelligence Team said in an analysis. “On their own, the individual segments of the HMTL file may appear harmless at the code level and may thus slip past conventional security solutions." 

When you open the attachment, a counterfeit Microsoft Office 365 credentials dialogue box appears on top of a blurred Excel document in a browser window. The dialogue box displays a message requesting recipients to re-sign in since their access to the Excel document has allegedly expired. When a user types in a password, the user is notified that the password is incorrect, while the virus stealthily collects the information in the background. Since its discovery in July 2020, the campaign is reported to have gone through ten iterations, with the adversary occasionally changing up its encoding methods to hide the harmful nature of the HTML attachment and the many assault segments contained within the file. 

According to Christian Seifert, lead research manager at Microsoft's M365 Security unit, the hackers have yet to be linked to a known group. “We believe it is one of the many cybercrime groups that defraud victims for profit,” Seifert said.

Google and Mozilla Develop an API for HTML Sanitization

 

Google, Mozilla, and Cure53 engineers have collaborated to create an application programming interface (API) that offers a comprehensive solution to HTML sanitization. The API will be used in upcoming versions of the Mozilla Firefox and Google Chrome web browsers. 

HTML sanitization is the process of reviewing an HTML document and creating a new HTML document that only contains the "secure" and desired tags. By sanitizing any HTML code submitted by a user, HTML sanitization can be used to defend against attacks like cross-site scripting (XSS).

Sanitation is usually carried out using either a whitelist or a blacklist strategy. Sanitization can be done further using rules that define which operations should be performed on the subject tags. 

When rendering user-generated content or working with templates, web applications are often expected to manage dynamic HTML content in the browser. Client-side HTML processing often introduces security flaws, which malicious actors exploit to stage XSS attacks, steal user data, or execute web commands on their behalf. 

“Historically, the web has been confronted with XSS issues ever since the inception of JavaScript,” Frederik Braun, security engineer at Mozilla, said. “The web has an increase in browser capabilities with new APIs and can thus be added to the attacker’s toolbox.” 

To protect against XSS attacks, many developers use open-source JavaScript libraries like DOMPurify. DOMPurify takes an HTML string as input and sanitizes it by deleting potentially vulnerable parts and escaping them. 

“The issue with parsing HTML is that it is a living standard and thus a quickly moving target,” Braun said. “To ensure that the HTML sanitizer works correctly on new input, it needs to keep up with this standard. The failure to do so can be catastrophic and lead to sanitizer bypasses.” 

The HTML Sanitizer API incorporates XSS security directly into the browser. The API's sanitizer class can be instantiated and used without the need to import external libraries. 

“This moves the responsibility for correct parsing into a piece of software that is already getting frequent security updates and has proven successful in doing it timely,” Braun said. According to Bentkowski, browsers already have built-in sanitizers for clipboard info, so repurposing the code to extend native sanitization capabilities makes perfect sense.

PayPal Suffered Cross-Site Scripting -XSS Vulnerability

 

The PayPal currency converter functionality was damaged by severe cross-site scripting (XSS) vulnerability. An attacker might be able to run destructive scripts if the vulnerability is abused. This could lead to the malicious user injecting malicious JavaScript, HTML, or some other form of browser file. The bug was noticed on PayPal's web domain with the currency converter functionality of PayPal wallets. 

On February 19, 2020, the vulnerability was first identified as a concern of "reflected XSS and CSP bypass" by a security researcher who goes by the name "Cr33pb0y" – he's been granted $2,900 in bug bounty programming by HackerOne. 

PayPal said that a flaw occurred in the currency conversion endpoint which was triggered by an inability to adequately sanitize user feedback, in a restricted disclosure that was released on February 10 – almost a year after the researcher identified the problem privately. 

PayPal acknowledged the flaw- in response to the HackerOne forum, that contributed to the currency translation URL managing user feedback inappropriately. A vulnerability intruder may use the JavaScript injection to access a document object in a browser or apply other malicious code to the URL. If hackers load a malicious payload into the browser of a victim, they can steal data or use the computer to take control of the system. As a consequence, malicious payloads can trigger a victim's browser page without its knowledge or consent in the Document Object Model (DOM). 

Typically, XSS attacks represent a browser's script from a specific website and can enable a target to click a malicious connection. Payloads can be used as a theft point in larger attacks or for the stealing of cookies, session tokens, or account information. PayPal has now carried out further validation tests to monitor users’ feedback in the currency exchange function and wipe out errors following the disclosure of the bug bounty hunter. 

XSS bugs are a frequent hacker attack vector. Several recent leaks of data have been related to bugs like what some analysts claim is an XSS flaw. 

While telling that the vulnerability has been fixed, PayPal said, “by implementing additional controls to validate and sanitize user input before being returned in the response.”